Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a prototype member of a new cytokine family with six species identified to date. IL-17 is secreted mainly by activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, while its receptor is distributed ubiquitously. IL-17 has been classified as a proinflammatory cytokine because of its ability to induce the expression of many mediators of inflammation, most strikingly those that are involved in the proliferation, maturation and chemotaxis of neutrophils. Increased levels of IL-17 have been associated with several conditions, including airway inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, intraperitoneal abscesses and adhesions, inflammatory bowel disease, allograft rejection, psoriasis, cancer and multiple sclerosis. This review provides an overview of IL-17 activities, concentrating on those that lead to neutrophil recruitment.