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      Mesangiocapillary Glomerulonephritis Caused by Puumala Hantavirus Infection

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          Nephropathia epidemica induced by Puumala hantavirus typically causes acute reversible renal function impairment. A typical renal biopsy finding is acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with slight glomerular mesangial changes. We describe here 5 patients who developed the nephrotic syndrome during the convalescent phase of an otherwise typical acute febrile nephropathia epidemica. Renal biopsy of all patients disclosed type I mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN). A clinical remission of the nephrotic syndrome was observed in 4 patients during the follow-up period, and 1 entered into chronic renal failure. Three patients had microscopic hematuria and proteinuria and 2 elevated blood pressure at the latest assessment visit. No patient had clinical or laboratory findings compatible with chronic bacterial, parasitic or viral infections (hepatitis B or C), malignancies, or other disorders known to be associated with MCGN. In conclusion, Puumala hantavirus has to be added to the list of potential agents associated with type I MCGN. Further studies are necessary to establish the incidence of MCGN caused by various hantavirus infections.

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          Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection.

          Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes both acute and chronic liver disease and is also associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia. Whether HCV is also associated with renal disease, as is the hepatitis B virus, is not known. We describe the clinical, pathologic, virologic, and immunologic features of eight patients with HCV infection who were referred to nephrologists for glomerulonephritis. Four patients were treated with interferon alfa. All eight patients had proteinuria, and seven had decreased renal function. Renal biopsy in all patients revealed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, characterized by the deposition of IgG, IgM, and C3 in glomeruli. Electron microscopy of the biopsy specimens showed cryoglobulin-like structures in three of four patients. All eight patients had HCV RNA detected in their serum, elevated serum aminotransferase concentrations, and hypocomplementemia, and the majority had cryoglobulins and circulating immune complexes in their serum. Cryoprecipitates from the three patients who were tested contained HCV RNA and IgG anti-HCV antibodies to the nucleocapsid core antigen (HCVc or c22-3). IgM rheumatoid factors, present in all patients, bound anti-HCV IgG in all six patients tested. Four patients received interferon alfa for 2 to 12 months; all had evidence of decreased HCV replication and improvement of their renal and liver disease. Chronic HCV infection is associated with cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The pathogenesis is unknown, but may relate to deposition within glomeruli of immune complexes containing HCV, anti-HCV IgG, and IgM rheumatoid factors.
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            Cytokines, Adhesion Molecules, and Cellular Infiltration in Nephropathia Epidemica Kidneys: An Immunohistochemical Study


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              22 November 2001
              : 89
              : 4
              : 402-407
              aMedical School, University of Tampere, bDepartment of Medicine and cDepartment of Pathology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, dPäijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, eCentral Hospital of Central Finland, Jyväskylä, fTissue Typing Laboratory, Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki, Finland
              46111 Nephron 2001;89:402–407
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 21, Pages: 6
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