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      Prevalence and Traits of Mobile Colistin Resistance Gene Harbouring Isolates from Different Ecosystems in Africa


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          The mobile colistin resistance ( mcr) gene threatens the efficacy of colistin (COL), a last-line antibiotic used in treating deadly infections. For more than six decades, COL is used in livestock around the globe, including Africa. The use of critically important antimicrobial agents, like COL, is largely unregulated in Africa, and many other factors militate against effective antimicrobial stewardship in the continent. Currently, ten mcr genes ( mcr-1 to mcr-10) have been described. In Africa, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-5, mcr-8, and mcr-9 have been detected in isolates from humans, animals, foods of animal origin, and the environment. These genes are harboured by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. Different conjugative and nonconjugative plasmids form the backbone for mcr in these isolates; however, mcr-1 and mcr-3 have also been integrated into the chromosome of some African strains. Insertion sequences (ISs) (especially IS Apl1), either located upstream or downstream of mcr, class 1 integrons, and transposons, are drivers of mcr in Africa. Genes coding multi/extensive drug resistance and virulence are colocated with mcr on plasmids in African strains. Transmission of mcr to/among African strains is nonclonal. Contact with mcr-habouring reservoirs, the consumption of contaminated foods of animal/plant origin or fluid, animal-/plant-based food trade and travel serve as exportation, importation, and transmission routes of mcr gene-containing bacteria in Africa. Herein, the current status of plasmid-mediated COL resistance in humans, food-producing animals, foods of animal origin, and environment in Africa is discussed.

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          Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study.

          Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing colistin resistance that could be transferred to another strain, was isolated from a pig, we conducted further analysis of possible plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. Herein, we report the emergence of the first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, in Enterobacteriaceae.
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            Resistance plasmid families in Enterobacteriaceae.

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              Colistin: the re-emerging antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

              Increasing multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, presents a critical problem. Limited therapeutic options have forced infectious disease clinicians and microbiologists to reappraise the clinical application of colistin, a polymyxin antibiotic discovered more than 50 years ago. We summarise recent progress in understanding the complex chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of colistin, the interplay between these three aspects, and their effect on the clinical use of this important antibiotic. Recent clinical findings are reviewed, focusing on evaluation of efficacy, emerging resistance, potential toxicities, and combination therapy. In the battle against rapidly emerging bacterial resistance we can no longer rely entirely on the discovery of new antibiotics; we must also pursue rational approaches to the use of older antibiotics such as colistin.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                22 January 2021
                : 2021
                1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 400001, Nigeria
                2Department of Functional Food Products Development, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Mohamed Salah Abbassi

                Copyright © 2021 Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: European Social Fund
                Award ID: POWR.03.05.00-00-Z062/18
                Funded by: UPWR 2.0:international and interdisciplinary programme of development of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
                Funded by: Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
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