Blog
About

5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
2 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Backgrounds and aims

          Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless.

          Methods

          We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness.

          Results

          Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal.

          Discussion and conclusions

          Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 34

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes.

          Impulsive behaviors are closely linked to drug use and abuse, both as contributors to use and as consequences of use. Trait impulsivity is an important determinant of drug use during development, and in adults momentary 'state' increases in impulsive behavior may increase the likelihood of drug use, especially in individuals attempting to abstain. Conversely, acute and chronic effects of drug use may increase impulsive behaviors, which may in turn facilitate further drug use. However, these effects depend on the behavioral measure used to assess impulsivity. This article reviews data from controlled studies investigating different measures of impulsive behaviors, including delay discounting, behavioral inhibition and a newly proposed measure of inattention. Our findings support the hypothesis that drugs of abuse alter performance across independent behavioral measures of impulsivity. The findings lay the groundwork for studying the cognitive and neurobiological substrates of impulsivity, and for future studies on the role of impulsive behavior as both facilitator and a result of drug use.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions?

             Marc Potenza (2006)
            In anticipation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), to consider whether addictive disorders should include non-substance use disorders. The author reviewed data and provided perspective to explore whether disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) should be grouped together with substance dependence, given that they share many features. PG and substance dependence currently reside in the DSM, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) within separate categories, with PG classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) and substance dependence as a substance use disorder (SUD). Arguments can be forwarded to support each categorization, as well as to justify their inclusion together as addictions. The current state of knowledge suggests that there exist substantial similarities between PG and SUDs. Further research is indicated prior to categorizing PG and other ICDs together with SUDs.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

              To present nationally representative data on lifetime prevalence and comorbidity of pathological gambling with other psychiatric disorders and to evaluate sex differences in the strength of the comorbid associations. Data were derived from a large national sample of the United States. Some 43,093 household and group quarters residents age 18 years and older participated in the 2001-2002 survey. Prevalence and associations of lifetime pathological gambling and other lifetime psychiatric disorders are presented. The diagnostic interview was the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Fifteen symptom items operationalized the 10 pathological gambling criteria. The lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.42%. Almost three quarters (73.2%) of pathological gamblers had an alcohol use disorder, 38.1% had a drug use disorder, 60.4% had nicotine dependence, 49.6% had a mood disorder, 41.3% had an anxiety disorder, and 60.8% had a personality disorder. A large majority of the associations between pathological gambling and substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were overwhelmingly positive and significant (p .05). Pathological gambling is highly comorbid with substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment for one condition should involve assessment and possible concomitant treatment for comorbid conditions.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                27 June 2016
                June 2016
                : 5
                : 2
                : 318-324
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge , Cambridge, United Kingdom
                [2 ]School of Psychology, University of Lincoln , Lincoln, United Kingdom
                [3 ]Connection at St Martins, London, United Kingdom
                [4 ] University of British Columbia , Vancouver, Canada
                [5 ]National Problem Gambling Clinic, London , United Kingdom
                [6 ] Imperial College , London, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Steve Sharman; School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom; Phone: +44 (0)1522 886849; Fax: +44 (0)1522 886680; E-mail: ssharman@ 123456lincoln.ac.uk
                Article
                10.1556/2006.5.2016.037
                5387783
                27348556
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 7
                Funding
                Funding sources: This study was unfunded; however, S. Sharman was supported by the Cambridge Home and European Scholarship Scheme. This research was conducted as part of Steve Sharman’s PhD.
                Categories
                Full-Length Report

                Comments

                Comment on this article