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      Development and novel therapeutics in hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

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          Abstract

          This review summarizes the epidemiological trend, risk factors, prevention strategies such as vaccination, staging, current novel therapeutics, including the drugs under clinical trials, and future therapeutic trends for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, its overall incidence remains alarmingly high in the developing world and is steadily rising across most of the developed and developing world. Over the past 15 years, the incidence of HCC has more than doubled and it increases with advancing age. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus is the leading cause of HCC, closely followed by infection with hepatitis C virus. Other factors contributing to the development of HCC include alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, and metabolic syndrome (including obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease). Treatment options have improved in the past few years, particularly with the approval of several molecular-targeted therapies. The researchers are actively pursuing novel therapeutic targets as well as predictive biomarker for treatment of HCC. Advances are being made in understanding the mechanisms underlying HCC, which in turn could lead to novel therapeutics. Nevertheless, there are many emerging agents still under clinical trials and yet to show promising results. Hence, future therapeutic options may include different combination of novel therapeutic interventions.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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            Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China--declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination.

            To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core anti-body (anti-HBc) in a representative population in China 14 years after introduction of hepatitis B vaccination of infants. National serosurvey, with participants selected by multi-stage random sampling. Demographics and hepatitis B vaccination history collected by questionnaire and review of vaccination records, and serum tested for HBsAg, antibody to anti-HBc and anti-HBs by ELISA. The weighted prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc for Chinese population aged 1-59 years were 7.2%, 50.1%, 34.1%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was greatly diminished among those age <15 years compared to that found in the 1992 national serosurvey, and among children age <5 years was only 1.0% (90% reduction). Reduced HBsAg prevalence was strongly associated with vaccination among all age groups. HBsAg risk in adults was associated with male sex, Western region, and certain ethnic groups and occupations while risk in children included birth at home or smaller hospitals, older age, and certain ethnic groups (Zhuang and other). China has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children under 5 years and has prevented an estimated 16-20 million HBV carriers through hepatitis B vaccination of infants. Immunization program should be further strengthened to reach those remaining at highest risk.
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              Targeted therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

              Unlike most solid tumors, the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have increased in the United States and Europe in the past decade. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, so there is an urgent need for new systemic therapies. Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has shown clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. Studies in patients with lung, breast, or colorectal cancers have indicated that the genetic heterogeneity of cancer cells within a tumor affect its response to therapeutics designed to target specific molecules. When tumor progression requires alterations in specific oncogenes (oncogene addiction), drugs that selectively block their products might slow tumor growth. However, no specific oncogene addictions are yet known to be implicated in HCC progression, so it is important to improve our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. There are currently many clinical trials evaluating TKIs for HCC, including those tested in combination with (eg, erlotinib) or compared with (eg, linifanib) sorafenib as a first-line therapy. For patients who do not respond or are intolerant to sorafenib, TKIs such as brivanib, everolimus, and monoclonal antibodies (eg, ramucirumab) are being tested as second-line therapies. There are early stage trials investigating the efficacy for up to 60 reagents for HCC. Together, these studies might change the management strategy for HCC, and combination therapies might be developed for patients with advanced HCC. Identification of oncogenes that mediate tumor progression, and trials that monitor their products as biomarkers, might lead to personalized therapy; reagents that interfere with signaling pathways required for HCC progression might be used to treat selected populations, and thereby maximize the efficacy and cost benefit. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                16 March 2016
                : 12
                : 445-455
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Pravinkumar Vishwanath Ingle, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, 57000 Bukit Jalil, Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Tel +60 17 606 1709, Email pravinkumarvi@ 123456imu.edu.my
                Article
                tcrm-12-445
                10.2147/TCRM.S92377
                4801152
                27042086
                © 2016 Ingle et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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