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      90 Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan: a nearly forgotten opportunity

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          Abstract

          Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y-IT) combines the benefits of a monoclonal antibody with the efficacy of radiation in the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a remarkably radiosensitive hematologic malignancy. 90Y-IT activity has been well established in the indolent setting, being approved in front-line treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients as well as salvage therapy. However, no advantage in OS was observed with respect to standard treatment. Promising data are available also for aggressive B-cell lymphoma. In particular, the addition of RIT to short-course first line chemotherapy enables reduction of chemotherapy while maintaining cure rates in elderly, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Furthermore, 90Y-IT improves response rate and outcomes of relapsed/refractory DLBCL patients, eligible and ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Clinical results have shown a role of 90Y-IT even in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). RIT might improve responses and treat minimal residual disease when used as consolidation after first-line chemotherapy in MCL. Moreover, 90Y-IT has demonstrated its efficacy in combination with high-dose chemotherapies as conditioning regimen for ASCT, with evidence suggesting the ability to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Herein, we review the available evidence for this approved drug and examine the recently published and ongoing trials for potential novel indication in aggressive B-cell NHL.

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          Most cited references 64

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          CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma.

          The standard treatment for patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma is cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the CD20 B-cell antigen, has therapeutic activity in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. We conducted a randomized trial to compare CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. Previously untreated patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma, 60 to 80 years old, were randomly assigned to receive either eight cycles of CHOP every three weeks (197 patients) or eight cycles of CHOP plus rituximab given on day 1 of each cycle (202 patients). The rate of complete response was significantly higher in the group that received CHOP plus rituximab than in the group that received CHOP alone (76 percent vs. 63 percent, P=0.005). With a median follow-up of two years, event-free and overall survival times were significantly higher in the CHOP-plus-rituximab group (P<0.001 and P=0.007, respectively). The addition of rituximab to standard CHOP chemotherapy significantly reduced the risk of treatment failure and death (risk ratios, 0.58 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.77] and 0.64 [0.45 to 0.89], respectively). Clinically relevant toxicity was not significantly greater with CHOP plus rituximab. The addition of rituximab to the CHOP regimen increases the complete-response rate and prolongs event-free and overall survival in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma, without a clinically significant increase in toxicity.
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            Bendamustine plus rituximab versus CHOP plus rituximab as first-line treatment for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphomas: an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 non-inferiority trial.

            Rituximab plus chemotherapy, most often CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), is the first-line standard of care for patients with advanced indolent lymphoma, and for elderly patients with mantle-cell lymphoma. Bendamustine plus rituximab is effective for relapsed or refractory disease. We compared bendamustine plus rituximab with CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP) as first-line treatment for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphomas. We did a prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial at 81 centres in Germany between Sept 1, 2003, and Aug 31, 2008. Patients aged 18 years or older with a WHO performance status of 2 or less were eligible if they had newly diagnosed stage III or IV indolent or mantle-cell lymphoma. Patients were stratified by histological lymphoma subtype, then randomly assigned according to a prespecified randomisation list to receive either intravenous bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2 of a 4-week cycle) or CHOP (cycles every 3 weeks of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) on day 1, and prednisone 100 mg/day for 5 days) for a maximum of six cycles. Patients in both groups received rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 of each cycle. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. Analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00991211, and the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices of Germany, BfArM 4021335. 274 patients were assigned to bendamustine plus rituximab (261 assessed) and 275 to R-CHOP (253 assessed). At median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 25-57), median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the bendamustine plus rituximab group than in the R-CHOP group (69.5 months [26.1 to not yet reached] vs 31.2 months [15.2-65.7]; hazard ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.74; p<0.0001). Bendamustine plus rituximab was better tolerated than R-CHOP, with lower rates of alopecia (0 patients vs 245 (100%) of 245 patients who recieved ≥3 cycles; p<0.0001), haematological toxicity (77 [30%] vs 173 [68%]; p<0.0001), infections (96 [37%] vs 127 [50%]); p=0.0025), peripheral neuropathy (18 [7%] vs 73 [29%]; p<0.0001), and stomatitis (16 [6%] vs 47 [19%]; p<0.0001). Erythematous skin reactions were more common in patients in the bendamustine plus rituximab group than in those in the R-CHOP group (42 [16%] vs 23 [9%]; p=0.024). In patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma, bendamustine plus rituximab can be considered as a preferred first-line treatment approach to R-CHOP because of increased progression-free survival and fewer toxic effects. Roche Pharma AG, Ribosepharm/Mundipharma GmbH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

              Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab plus chemotherapy regimen. The randomised, open-label PRIMA study was undertaken in 223 centres in 25 countries. 1217 patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma needing systemic therapy received one of three non-randomised immunochemotherapy induction regimens used in routine practice. 1019 patients achieving a complete or partial response were then randomly assigned to receive 2 years of rituximab maintenance therapy (375 mg/m(2) every 8 weeks) or observation. Treatment was assigned equally by centralised block randomisation, stratified by induction regimen, response, region, and centre. Neither the participants nor those giving the interventions, assessing outcomes, and analysing data were masked to group assignments. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00140582. 505 patients were assigned to rituximab maintenance and 513 to observation (one patient died during randomisation). With a median follow-up of 36 months (IQR 30-42), PFS was 74·9% (95% CI 70·9-78·9) in the rituximab maintenance group (130 patients progressed) and 57·6% (53·2-62·0) in the observation group (218 progressed; hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·44-0·68, p<0·0001). 2 years after randomisation, 361 patients (71·5%) in the rituximab maintenance group were in complete or unconfirmed complete response versus 268 (52·2%) in the observation group (p=0·0001). Overall survival did not differ significantly between groups (HR 0·87, 95% CI 0·51-1·47). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were recorded in 121 patients (24%) in the rituximab maintenance group and 84 (17%) in the observation group (risk ratio 1·46, 95% CI 1·14-1·87; p=0·0026). Infections (grades 2-4) were the most common adverse event, occurring in 197 (39%) and 123 (24%) patients, respectively (risk ratio 1·62, 95% CI 1·35-1·96; p<0·0001). 2 years of rituximab maintenance therapy after immunochemotherapy as first-line treatment for follicular lymphoma significantly improves PFS. Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) and F Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                16 February 2016
                9 December 2015
                : 7
                : 7
                : 7597-7609
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                2 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                3 Lymphoma Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
                4 Department of Hematology, Hospital S. Maurizio, Bolzano/Bozen, Italy
                5 Department of Internal Medicine V, Hematology and Oncology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Patrizia Mondello, patriziamondello@ 123456hotmail.it
                Article
                6531
                10.18632/oncotarget.6531
                4884941
                26657116
                Copyright: © 2016 Mondello et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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