Manabu Tamura 1 , Kasei Kogo 2 , Osamu Masuo 3 , Yoshinori Oura 3 , Hiroyuki Matsumoto 3 , Koji Fujita 3 , Naoyuki Nakao 3 , Yuji Uematsu 3 , Toru Itakura 3 , Mikhail Chernov 1 , Motohiro Hayashi 1 , Yoshihiro Muragaki 1 , Hiroshi Iseki 1
22 October 2013
Background Aneurysm formation after stereotactic irradiation of skull base tumors is rare. The formation and rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm in a patient with skull base Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), who underwent surgery followed by multiple courses of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy, is described.
Case Description A 25-year-old man presented with a sinonasal tumor with intraorbital and intracranial growth. At that time cerebral angiography did not reveal any vascular abnormalities. The lesion was resected subtotally. Histopathologic diagnosis was Ewing sarcoma/PNET. The patient underwent multiple courses of chemotherapy and three courses of IMRT at 3, 28, and 42 months after initial surgery. The total biologically effective dose delivered to the right ICA was 220.2 Gy. Seven months after the third IMRT, the patient experienced profound nasal bleeding that resulted in hypovolemic shock. Angiography revealed a ruptured right C4–C5 aneurysm and irregular stenotic changes of the ICA. Lifesaving endovascular trapping of the right ICA was done. The patient recovered well after surgery but died due to tumor recurrence 6 months later.
Conclusion Excessive irradiation of the ICA may occasionally result in aneurysm formation, which should be borne in mind during stereotactic irradiation of malignant skull base tumors.