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      Integrative revision of the Caryocolum schleichi species group – a striking example of a temporally changing species concept (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

      Alpine Entomology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The taxonomy of the Palaearctic Caryocolum schleichi species group is revised, leading to a largely new species concept. Initially described as four different species (C. schleichi, C. arenariella, C. dianthella, C. improvisella), these taxa were later considered as subspecies. Recently the taxon C. arenariella was re-instated to species level without, however, revision of the remaining three subspecies. Analysis of DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (Cytochrome c Oxidase 1) gene of all four validly described taxa showed an unexpected pattern of genetic diversity. Careful re-examination of morphological traits, particularly male and female genitalia, fully supported this pattern, leading to the re-instatement of C. dianthella sp. rev. and C. improvisella sp. rev. as valid species and the description of three new species, all of them occurring in the Alps: C. messneri sp. nov. (Italy, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Greece), C. lamai sp. nov. (Italy, France) and C. habeleri sp. nov. (France, Switzerland, Germany). All species are described in detail and the adults and genitalia of both sexes are illustrated.

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          Allopatry as a Gordian Knot for Taxonomists: Patterns of DNA Barcode Divergence in Arctic-Alpine Lepidoptera

          Many cold adapted species occur in both montane settings and in the subarctic. Their disjunct distributions create taxonomic complexity because there is no standardized method to establish whether their allopatric populations represent single or different species. This study employs DNA barcoding to gain new perspectives on the levels and patterns of sequence divergence among populations of 122 arctic-alpine species of Lepidoptera from the Alps, Fennoscandia and North America. It reveals intraspecific variability in the barcode region ranging from 0.00–10.08%. Eleven supposedly different species pairs or groups show close genetic similarity, suggesting possible synonymy in many cases. However, a total of 33 species show evidence of cryptic diversity as evidenced by the presence of lineages with over 2% maximum barcode divergence in Europe, in North America or between the two continents. Our study also reveals cases where taxonomic names have been used inconsistently between regions and exposes misidentifications. Overall, DNA barcodes have great potential to both increase taxonomic resolution and to make decisions concerning the taxonomic status of allopatric populations more objective.
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            DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity: an example from Caryocolum, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

            Abstract We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy of these taxa has to be re-assessed in the future. We investigated one such deep split in Caryocolum amaurella (Hering, 1924) and found it in congruence with yet unrecognized diagnostic morphological characters and specific host-plants. The integrative species delineation leads to the description of Caryocolum crypticum sp. n. from northern Italy, Switzerland and Greece. The new species and the hitherto intermixed closest relative C. amaurella are described in detail and adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated and a lectotype of C. amaurella is designated; a diagnostic comparison of the closely related C. iranicum Huemer, 1989, is added.
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              Gelechiidae II. (Gelechiinae: Gnorimoschemini). Microlepidoptera of Europe vol 6. Apollo Books.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Alpine Entomology
                AlpEnt
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0889
                April 23 2020
                April 23 2020
                : 4
                : 39-63
                Article
                10.3897/alpento.4.50703
                © 2020

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