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Compensation patterns following occupational injuries in Zambia: results from the 2009 Labour Survey

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      BackgroundOccupational injuries have received limited research attention in the Southern African Development Community. Much of the published data come from South Africa and little has been reported elsewhere within the region. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates of occupational injuries and compensation; and to determine factors associated with occupational injuries and compensation.MethodsData were obtained from occupational health and injury questions added to the Zambian Labour Force Survey of 2009 by the Work and Health in Southern Africa programme. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the degree of association between demographic, social and economic factors on one hand and injury and compensation on the other.ResultsData on 61871 study participants were available for analysis, of whom 4998 (8.1%) reported having been injured (10.0% of males, and 6.2% of females) due to work in the previous 12 months to the survey. Of those injured, 60.5% reported having stayed away from work as a result. The commonest type of injury was "open wound" (81.6%). Male gender, being married or married before, being a paid employee, working for a private company and household were positively associated with serious injuries. Injuries also varied by geographical area. Factors positively associated with receiving compensation for work-related injuries were: male gender, Copperbelt and North-Western provinces, and unpaid family worker. Employer/self employed and having less than 5 employees in a workplace were negatively associated with compensation.ConclusionThe prevalence of reported injury and its association with a significant level of absence from work, indicate that occupational hazards in Zambia have significant health and economic effects. Female workers should equally be compensated for injuries suffered as their male counterparts.

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      Most cited references 7

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      Epidemiology of lifetime work-related eye injuries in the U.S. population associated with one or more lost days of work.

      Eye injuries are one of the most common types of work-related injuries. This study examined the lifetime prevalence rate of eye injuries at work and associated factors in the general population of the United States. The data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for individuals aged 18 years or older (n = 28,913). Lifetime prevalence rates of work-related eye injuries were determined by different factors, calculated as the percentage of the weighted number of people who reported to have an eye injury at work divided by the weighted total number of people in the corresponding category. The overall lifetime prevalence rate of work-related eye injuries was 4.4%. The lifetime age-specific prevalence rates of work-related eye injuries ranged from 2%, 3.8%, 4.9%, 6.0%, 5.4%, 4.0%, and 3.1% for ages 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75+ years, respectively, with the highest rate in the age of 45-54 years. Men had a more than four-times higher rate of eye injury at work than women. Workers with less than a high-school education, non-Hispanic whites, self-employed, and in the midwest region were more likely to experience eye injuries (all p-values < 0.001). Occupations of precision production, transportation, or farming, and industries of mining or construction also increased the risk of eye injuries at work. Findings of the current study underscore the need of education and prevention program on eye protection at workplaces, targeting male workers, especially those who have a low education level and are self-employed.
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        Occupational injuries among workers with diabetes: the National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2005.

        To assess associations between diabetes and occupational injury. Data from the 1997 to 2005 National Health Interview Survey comprised a sample of 195,284 adult workers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed associations between diabetes and occupational injuries, adjusting for age, sex, race, and education. Additional logistic regression analysis examined the effect of medical therapy and duration of diabetes with occupational injury. There was no significant association between diabetes and occupational injury (adjusted OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.61). Subgroups of diabetics who reported no current diabetes therapy (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.47) or duration of diabetes longer than 12 years (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.05 to 3.18) were at increased risk for occupational injury. The finding of no overall increased risk for occupational injury among workers with diabetes provides nationally representative results that may be useful to policymakers. Increased risk for occupational injury among untreated diabetics or those with long duration of disease may lead to focused efforts to prevent occupational injuries.
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          Occupational stress and work-related unintentional injuries among Iranian car manufacturing workers.

           H Soori,  M. Rahimi,  H Mohseni (2015)
          This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries. Data were collected from 608 male workers (508 at-risk general workers and 100 with injuries in the last year). Job stress was assessed by the Belkic occupational stress index. The prevalence of job stress was 21.3%. The main occupational stressors were time pressure (78.5%), mode of payment and evaluation (56.4%), and interaction with people and machines (41.3%). The risk of injury among those with job stress was significantly higher than those without job stress (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20-3.30). Job stress was responsible for 11.9% of all occupational injuries in this group.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
            [2 ]Department of Public Health, Division of Community Health, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi
            [3 ]WAHSA programme and Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, SA
            [4 ]Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, California, USA
            Int Arch Med
            International Archives of Medicine
            BioMed Central
            8 September 2010
            : 3
            : 19
            Copyright ©2010 Siziya et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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