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      Direct Contact between Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Renal Fibroblasts Facilitates the Expression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1

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          Background: Cell-to-cell interaction is thought to be an important feature of a variety of biological processes. As far as the proinflammatory process is concerned, the interaction between mesangial cells and monocytes/macrophages induces the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and this may play a role in glomerulonephritis. In this study, we investigated whether the cell-to-cell interaction between immune cells and renal fibroblasts induces MCP-1 gene expression, which may be involved in interstitial inflammation in the kidney. Methods: Human renal fibroblast cell lines, tNKF (from a normal kidney) and tFKIF (from a kidney with fibrosis), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used to assess the effect of cell-to-cell contact on the expression of MCP-1 mRNA in the fibroblasts. The expression of the MCP-1 gene in the fibroblasts was also examined after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the culture supernatant from PBMC. RT-PCR was used to detect MCP-1 mRNA expression. Neutralizing antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were used to block the cell-to-cell contact between the fibroblasts and PBMC. Results: TNF-α and the culture supernatant from PBMC increased MCP-1 gene expression in tNKF cells. Contact culture with PBMC also significantly increased MCP-1 gene expression in tNKF cells. Although the basal level of MCP-1 mRNA was higher in tFKIF than tNKF cells, tFKIF cells did not respond significantly to any stimulation in this study. Following pretreatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody, MCP-1 gene expression in tNKF cells was significantly suppressed in contact culture with PBMC. Anti-VCAM-1 antibody treatment had no effects. Conclusion: It is suggested that the interaction between renal fibroblasts and PBMC was mediated through direct contact and by secreted humoral factors. ICAM-1 on renal fibroblasts may be involved in the direct cell-to-cell interaction inducing MCP-1 gene expression, which seems to be involved in renal interstitial inflammation.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Molecular basis of renal fibrosis.

           James A. Eddy (2000)
          All progressive renal diseases are the consequence of a process of destructive fibrosis. This review will focus on tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathophysiology of which will be divided into four arbitrary phases. First is the cellular activation and injury phase. The tubules are activated, the peritubular capillary endothelium facilitates migration of mononuclear cells into the interstitium where they mature into macrophages, and myofibroblasts/activated fibroblasts begin to populate the interstitium. Each of these cells releases soluble products that contribute to ongoing inflammation and ultimately fibrosis. The second phase, the fibrogenic signaling phase, is characterized by the release of soluble factors that have fibrosis-promoting effects. Several growth factors and cytokines have been implicated, with primary roles suggested for transforming growth factor-beta, connective tissue growth factor, angiotensin II and endothelin-1. Additional factors may participate including platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, while interferon-gamma and hepatocyte growth factor may elicit antifibrotic responses. Third is the fibrogenic phase when matrix proteins, both normal and novel to the renal interstitium, begin to accumulate. During this time both increased matrix protein synthesis and impaired matrix turnover are evident. The latter is due to the renal production of protease inhibitors such as the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and plasminogen activator inhibitors which inactivate the renal proteases that normally regulate matrix turnover. Fourth is the phase of renal destruction, the ultimate sequel to excessive matrix accumulation. During this time the tubules and peritubular capillaries are obliterated. The number of intact nephrons progressively declines resulting in a continuous reduction in glomerular filtration.
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            NF-κB Mediates αvβ3 Integrin-induced Endothelial Cell Survival

            The αvβ3 integrin plays a fundamental role during the angiogenesis process by inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inhibition is unknown. In this report, we show that integrin-mediated cell survival involves regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. Different extracellular matrix molecules were able to protect rat aorta- derived endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. Osteopontin and β3 integrin ligation rapidly increased NF-κB activity as measured by gel shift and reporter activity. The p65 and p50 subunits were present in the shifted complex. In contrast, collagen type I (a β1-integrin ligand) did not induce NF-κB activity. The αvβ3 integrin was most important for osteopontin-mediated NF-κB induction and survival, since adding a neutralizing anti-β3 integrin antibody blocked NF-κB activity and induced endothelial cell death when cells were plated on osteopontin. NF-κB was required for osteopontin- and vitronectin-induced survival since inhibition of NF-κB activity with nonphosphorylatable IκB completely blocked the protective effect of osteopontin and vitronectin. In contrast, NF-κB was not required for fibronectin, laminin, and collagen type I–induced survival. Activation of NF-κB by osteopontin depended on the small GTP-binding protein Ras and the tyrosine kinase Src, since NF-κB reporter activity was inhibited by Ras and Src dominant-negative mutants. In contrast, inhibition of MEK and PI3-kinase did not affect osteopontin-induced NF-κB activation. These studies identify NF-κB as an important signaling molecule in αvβ3 integrin-mediated endothelial cell survival.
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              RANTES and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 (MCP-1) Play an Important Role in the Inflammatory Phase of Crescentic Nephritis, but Only MCP-1 Is Involved in Crescent Formation and Interstitial Fibrosis

              The involvement of chemokines in inflammation is well established, but their functional role in disease progression, and particularly in the development of fibrosis, is not yet understood. To investigate the functional role that the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) and RANTES play in inflammation and the progression to fibrosis during crescentic nephritis we have developed and characterized a murine model for this syndrome. Significant increases in T-lymphocytes and macrophages were observed within glomeruli and interstitium, paralleled by an induction of mRNA expression of MCP-1 and RANTES, early after disease initiation. Blocking the function of MCP-1 or RANTES resulted in significant decreases in proteinuria as well as in numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, indicating that both MCP-1 and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted) play an important role in the inflammatory phase of crescentic nephritis. In addition, neutralization of MCP-1 resulted in a dramatic decrease in both glomerular crescent formation and deposition of type I collagen. These results highlight a novel role for MCP-1 in crescent formation and development of interstitial fibrosis, and indicate that in addition to recruiting inflammatory cells this chemokine is critically involved in irreversible tissue damage.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2003
                31 July 2003
                : 23
                : 4
                : 208-213
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Saitama Medical School, Saitama, Japan; bDepartment of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Georg August University, Göttingen, Germany
                71480 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:208–213
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 23, Pages: 6
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                Original Article: Basic Sciences


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