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      Sport and male sexuality

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      Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

      Springer Nature

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          Hormonal Responses and Adaptations to Resistance Exercise and Training

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            Testosterone physiology in resistance exercise and training: the up-stream regulatory elements.

            Testosterone is one of the most potent naturally secreted androgenic-anabolic hormones, and its biological effects include promotion of muscle growth. In muscle, testosterone stimulates protein synthesis (anabolic effect) and inhibits protein degradation (anti-catabolic effect); combined, these effects account for the promotion of muscle hypertrophy by testosterone. These physiological signals from testosterone are modulated through the interaction of testosterone with the intracellular androgen receptor (AR). Testosterone is important for the desired adaptations to resistance exercise and training; in fact, testosterone is considered the major promoter of muscle growth and subsequent increase in muscle strength in response to resistance training in men. The acute endocrine response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise generally includes increased secretion of various catabolic (breakdown-related) and anabolic (growth-related) hormones including testosterone. The response of testosterone and AR to resistance exercise is largely determined by upper regulatory elements including the acute exercise programme variable domains, sex and age. In general, testosterone concentration is elevated directly following heavy resistance exercise in men. Findings on the testosterone response in women are equivocal with both increases and no changes observed in response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise. Age also significantly affects circulating testosterone concentrations. Until puberty, children do not experience an acute increase in testosterone from a bout of resistance exercise; after puberty some acute increases in testosterone from resistance exercise can be found in boys but not in girls. Aging beyond 35-40 years is associated with a 1-3% decline per year in circulating testosterone concentration in men; this decline eventually results in the condition known as andropause. Similarly, aging results in a reduced acute testosterone response to resistance exercise in men. In women, circulating testosterone concentration also gradually declines until menopause, after which a drastic reduction is found. In summary, testosterone is an important modulator of muscle mass in both men and women and acute increases in testosterone can be induced by resistance exercise. In general, the variables within the acute programme variable domains must be selected such that the resistance exercise session contains high volume and metabolic demand in order to induce an acute testosterone response.
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              Modifiable risk factors and erectile dysfunction: can lifestyle changes modify risk?

              To prospectively examine whether changes in smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity are associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction. Data were collected as part of a cohort study of a random sample of men 40 to 70 years old, selected from street listings in the Boston Metropolitan Area, Massachusetts. In-home interviews were completed by 1709 men at baseline in 1987 to 1989 and 1156 men at follow-up in 1995 to 1997 (average follow-up 8.8 years). Analyses included 593 men without erectile dysfunction at baseline, who were free of prostate cancer, and had not been treated for heart disease or diabetes. The incidence of moderate to complete erectile dysfunction was determined by discriminant analysis of responses to a self-administered sexual function questionnaire. Obesity status was associated with erectile dysfunction (P = 0.006), with baseline obesity predicting a higher risk regardless of follow-up weight loss. Physical activity status was associated with erectile dysfunction (P = 0.01), with the highest risk among men who remained sedentary and the lowest among those who remained active or initiated physical activity. Changes in smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with the incidence of erectile dysfunction (P >0.3). Midlife changes may be too late to reverse the effects of smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption on erectile dysfunction. In contrast, physical activity may reduce the risk of erectile dysfunction even if initiated in midlife. Early adoption of healthy lifestyles may be the best approach to reducing the burden of erectile dysfunction on the health and well-being of older men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
                J Endocrinol Invest
                Springer Nature
                1720-8386
                September 2017
                March 22 2017
                September 2017
                : 40
                : 9
                : 911-923
                Article
                10.1007/s40618-017-0652-8
                © 2017

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