12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although “two hits” animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 58

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Increased airway epithelial Na+ absorption produces cystic fibrosis-like lung disease in mice.

          Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene result in defective epithelial cAMP-dependent Cl(-) secretion and increased airway Na(+) absorption. The mechanistic links between these altered ion transport processes and the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease, however, are unclear. To test the hypothesis that accelerated Na(+) transport alone can produce cystic fibrosis-like lung disease, we generated mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC). Here we show that increased airway Na(+) absorption in vivo caused airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion, increased mucus concentration, delayed mucus transport and mucus adhesion to airway surfaces. Defective mucus transport caused a severe spontaneous lung disease sharing features with cystic fibrosis, including mucus obstruction, goblet cell metaplasia, neutrophilic inflammation and poor bacterial clearance. We conclude that increasing airway Na(+) absorption initiates cystic fibrosis-like lung disease and produces a model for the study of the pathogenesis and therapy of this disease.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Lethal synergism between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterization of a mouse model and the role of platelet-activating factor receptor.

            A lethal synergism exists between influenza virus and pneumococcus, which likely accounts for excess mortality from secondary bacterial pneumonia during influenza epidemics. Characterization of a mouse model of synergy revealed that influenza infection preceding pneumococcal challenge primed for pneumonia and led to 100% mortality. This effect was specific for viral infection preceding bacterial infection, because reversal of the order of administration led to protection from influenza and improved survival. The hypothesis that influenza up-regulates the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr) and thereby potentiates pneumococcal adherence and invasion in the lung was examined in the model. Groups of mice receiving CV-6209, a competitive antagonist of PAFr, had survival rates similar to those of control mice, and lung and blood bacterial titers increased during PAFr inhibition. These data suggest that PAFr-independent pathways are operative in the model, prompting further study of receptor interactions during pneumonia and bacteremia. The model of lethal synergism will be a useful tool for exploring this and other mechanisms underlying viral-bacterial interactions.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Bacteriophages can treat and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

              Antibiotic-resistant bacteria threaten life worldwide. Although new antibiotics are scarce, the use of bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, is rarely proposed as a means of offsetting this shortage. Doubt also remains widespread about the efficacy of phage therapy despite recent encouraging results. Using a bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, we monitored and quantified the efficacy of a bacteriophage treatment in mice during acute lung infection. Bacteriophage treatment not only was effective in saving animals from lethal infection, but also was able to prevent lung infection when given 24 h before bacterial infection, thereby extending the potential use of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents to combat bacterial lung infection.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                26 June 2015
                : 9
                : 3279-3292
                Affiliations
                [1 ]IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France
                [2 ]Réanimation – Détresses Respiratoires et infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France
                [3 ]Service d’explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jean-Marc Rolain, IHU Méditerranée infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, 27 Bd J Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France, Email jean-marc.rolain@ 123456univ-amu.fr
                Article
                dddt-9-3279
                10.2147/DDDT.S70993
                4492661
                26170617
                © 2015 Hraiech et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article