Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall's plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells. These steps are modulated by an imbalance between factors that promote or inhibit urinary crystallization. It is also noted that cellular injury promotes retention of particles on renal papillary surfaces. The exposure of renal epithelial cells to oxalate causes a signaling cascade which leads to apoptosis by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Currently, there is no satisfactory drug to cure and/or prevent kidney stone recurrences. Thus, further understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation is a research area to manage urolithiasis using new drugs. Therefore, this review has intended to provide a compiled up-to-date information on kidney stone etiology, pathogenesis, and prevention approaches.