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Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery

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      Abstract

      The Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. The genus status and species classification appear no longer valid, as compelling evidence indicates that Shigella, as well as enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of E.coli and form a single pathovar. Nevertheless, Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 causes deadly epidemics but Shigella boydii is restricted to the Indian subcontinent, while Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are prevalent in developing and developed countries respectively. To begin to explain these distinctive epidemiological and pathological features at the genome level, we have carried out comparative genomics on four representative strains. Each of the Shigella genomes includes a virulence plasmid that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. The Shigella chromosomes share most of their genes with that of E.coli K12 strain MG1655, but each has over 200 pseudogenes, 300∼700 copies of insertion sequence (IS) elements, and numerous deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions. There is extensive diversity of putative virulence genes, mostly acquired via bacteriophage-mediated lateral gene transfer. Hence, via convergent evolution involving gain and loss of functions, through bacteriophage-mediated gene acquisition, IS-mediated DNA rearrangements and formation of pseudogenes, the Shigella spp. became highly specific human pathogens with variable epidemiological and pathological features.

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      Most cited references 62

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      Base-calling of automated sequencer traces using phred. I. Accuracy assessment.

      The availability of massive amounts of DNA sequence information has begun to revolutionize the practice of biology. As a result, current large-scale sequencing output, while impressive, is not adequate to keep pace with growing demand and, in particular, is far short of what will be required to obtain the 3-billion-base human genome sequence by the target date of 2005. To reach this goal, improved automation will be essential, and it is particularly important that human involvement in sequence data processing be significantly reduced or eliminated. Progress in this respect will require both improved accuracy of the data processing software and reliable accuracy measures to reduce the need for human involvement in error correction and make human review more efficient. Here, we describe one step toward that goal: a base-calling program for automated sequencer traces, phred, with improved accuracy. phred appears to be the first base-calling program to achieve a lower error rate than the ABI software, averaging 40%-50% fewer errors in the data sets examined independent of position in read, machine running conditions, or sequencing chemistry.
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        The KEGG resource for deciphering the genome.

        A grand challenge in the post-genomic era is a complete computer representation of the cell and the organism, which will enable computational prediction of higher-level complexity of cellular processes and organism behavior from genomic information. Toward this end we have been developing a knowledge-based approach for network prediction, which is to predict, given a complete set of genes in the genome, the protein interaction networks that are responsible for various cellular processes. KEGG at http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/ is the reference knowledge base that integrates current knowledge on molecular interaction networks such as pathways and complexes (PATHWAY database), information about genes and proteins generated by genome projects (GENES/SSDB/KO databases) and information about biochemical compounds and reactions (COMPOUND/GLYCAN/REACTION databases). These three types of database actually represent three graph objects, called the protein network, the gene universe and the chemical universe. New efforts are being made to abstract knowledge, both computationally and manually, about ortholog clusters in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, and to collect and analyze carbohydrate structures in the GLYCAN database.
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          Consed: a graphical tool for sequence finishing.

          Sequencing of large clones or small genomes is generally done by the shotgun approach (Anderson et al. 1982). This has two phases: (1) a shotgun phase in which a number of reads are generated from random subclones and assembled into contigs, followed by (2) a directed, or finishing phase in which the assembly is inspected for correctness and for various kinds of data anomalies (such as contaminant reads, unremoved vector sequence, and chimeric or deleted reads), additional data are collected to close gaps and resolve low quality regions, and editing is performed to correct assembly or base-calling errors. Finishing is currently a bottleneck in large-scale sequencing efforts, and throughput gains will depend both on reducing the need for human intervention and making it as efficient as possible. We have developed a finishing tool, consed, which attempts to implement these principles. A distinguishing feature relative to other programs is the use of error probabilities from our programs phred and phrap as an objective criterion to guide the entire finishing process. More information is available at http:// www.genome.washington.edu/consed/consed. html.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1simpleState Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Chinese Ministry of Public Health Beijing 100052, China
            2simpleMicrobial Genome Research Center, Chinese Ministry of Public Health Beijing 100052, China
            3simpleNational Center of Human Genome Research Beijing 100176, China
            4simpleThe Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK
            Author notes
            *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +86 10 6787 7732; Fax: +86 10 6787 7736; Email: zdsys@ 123456sina.com

            The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first four authors should be regarded as joint First Authors

            DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession nos +

            +CP000034–CP000039

            Journal
            Nucleic Acids Res
            Nucleic Acids Research
            Nucleic Acids Research
            Oxford University Press
            0305-1048
            1362-4962
            2005
            2005
            7 November 2005
            : 33
            : 19
            : 6445-6458
            1278947
            10.1093/nar/gki954
            16275786
            © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

            The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oxfordjournals.org

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