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      Psychological Quality of Life in People with Physical Disability: The Effect of Internalized Stigma, Collective Action and Resilience

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          Abstract

          Purpose: The main objective of this study was to examine the role of social identification, collective action and resilience in reducing the negative consequences of internalized stigma on the psychological quality of life of people with physical disability using path analysis. We propose a model with two paths: the first through social identification and collective action and the second via resilience. Method: A total of 288 Spanish people with physical disability aged between 18 and 82 years (46.4% males; mean [SD] of age = 45.1 [12.3] responded to the questionnaire. Data were collected for three months through an online survey. Results: The tested model adequately fit the data. We found that the relationship between internalized stigma and the psychological quality of life of people with physical disability was mediated by resilience. However, neither social identification nor collective action mediated the association between internalized stigma and quality of life among our participants. Conclusions: The results confirmed the negative association between internalized stigma and quality of life in the population with physical disability. The results show that some interactive processes, such as resilience, may contribute to decreasing the negative effects of internalized stigma. In contrast, no effects of identification with the group or collective action intention were found.

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          Resilience and mental health.

          The relationship between disease and good health has received relatively little attention in mental health. Resilience can be viewed as a defence mechanism, which enables people to thrive in the face of adversity and improving resilience may be an important target for treatment and prophylaxis. Though resilience is a widely-used concept, studies vary substantially in their definition, and measurement. Above all, there is no common underlying theoretical construct to this very heterogeneous research which makes the evaluation and comparison of findings extremely difficult. Furthermore, the varying multi-disciplinary approaches preclude meta-analysis, so that clarification of research in this area must proceed firstly by conceptual unification. We attempt to collate and classify the available research around a multi-level biopsychosocial model, theoretically and semiotically comparable to that used in describing the complex chain of events related to host resistance in infectious disease. Using this underlying construct we attempt to reorganize current knowledge around a unitary concept in order to clarify and indicate potential intervention points for increasing resilience and positive mental health. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Resilience to loss and potential trauma.

            Initial research on loss and potentially traumatic events (PTEs) has been dominated by either a psychopathological approach emphasizing individual dysfunction or an event approach emphasizing average differences between exposed and nonexposed groups. We consider the limitations of these approaches and review more recent research that has focused on the heterogeneity of outcomes following aversive events. Using both traditional analytic tools and sophisticated latent trajectory modeling, this research has identified a set of prototypical outcome patterns. Typically, the most common outcome following PTEs is a stable trajectory of healthy functioning or resilience. We review research showing that resilience is not the result of a few dominant factors, but rather that there are multiple independent predictors of resilient outcomes. Finally, we critically evaluate the question of whether resilience-building interventions can actually make people more resilient, and we close with suggestions for future research on resilience. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
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              Internalized stigma among sexual minority adults: Insights from a social psychological perspective.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                10 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 17
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Psychology, National University for Distance Education (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain; mdpsilvan@ 123456psi.uned.es (P.S.-F.); reciop@ 123456psi.uned.es (P.R.); fmolero@ 123456psi.uned.es (F.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: enouvilas@ 123456psi.uned.es ; Tel.: +34-913-987-955
                Article
                ijerph-17-01802
                10.3390/ijerph17051802
                7084512
                32164278
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                quality of life, disability, collective action, internalized stigma, resilience

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