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      RNA granules

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      The Journal of Cell Biology

      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          Cytoplasmic RNA granules in germ cells (polar and germinal granules), somatic cells (stress granules and processing bodies), and neurons (neuronal granules) have emerged as important players in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. RNA granules contain various ribosomal subunits, translation factors, decay enzymes, helicases, scaffold proteins, and RNA-binding proteins, and they control the localization, stability, and translation of their RNA cargo. We review the relationship between different classes of these granules and discuss how spatial organization regulates messenger RNA translation/decay.

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          Most cited references 79

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          RADIOAUTOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CHOLINE INCORPORATION INTO PERIPHERAL NERVE MYELIN

          This radioautographic study was designed to localize the cytological sites involved in the incorporation of a lipid precursor into the myelin and the myelin-related cell of the peripheral nervous system. Both myelinating and fully myelinated cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a 30-min pulse of tritiated choline and either fixed immediately or allowed 6 or 48 hr of chase incubation before fixation. After Epon embedding, light and electron microscopic radioautograms were prepared with Ilford L-4 emulsion. Analysis of the pattern of choline incorporation into myelinating cultures indicated that radioactivity appeared all along the length of the internode, without there being a preferential site of initial incorporation. Light microscopic radioautograms of cultures at varying states of maturity were compared in order to determine the relative degree of myelin labeling. This analysis indicated that the myelin-Schwann cell unit in the fully myelinated cultures incorporated choline as actively as did this unit in the myelinating cultures. Because of technical difficulties, it was not possible to determine the precise localization of the incorporated radioactivity within the compact myelin. These data are related to recent biochemical studies indicating that the mature myelin of the central nervous system does incorporate a significant amount of lipid precursor under the appropriate experimental conditions. These observations support the concept that a significant amount of myelin-related metabolic activity occurs in mature tissue; this activity is considered part of an essential and continuous process of myelin maintenance and repair.
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            Inhibition of translational initiation by Let-7 MicroRNA in human cells.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21-nucleotide-long RNA molecules regulating gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. In metazoa, miRNAs act by imperfectly base-pairing with the 3' untranslated region of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and repressing protein accumulation by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that endogenous let-7 microribonucleoproteins (miRNPs) or the tethering of Argonaute (Ago) proteins to reporter mRNAs in human cells inhibit translation initiation. M(7)G-cap-independent translation is not subject to repression, suggesting that miRNPs interfere with recognition of the cap. Repressed mRNAs, Ago proteins, and miRNAs were all found to accumulate in processing bodies. We propose that localization of mRNAs to these structures is a consequence of translational repression.
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              Neuroscience. Developmental refining of neuroglial signaling?

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                JCB
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                13 March 2006
                : 172
                : 6
                : 803-808
                Affiliations
                Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115
                Author notes

                Correspondence to Nancy Kedersha: nkedersha@ 123456rics.bwh.Harvard.edu ; or Paul Anderson: panderson@ 123456rics.bwh.Harvard.edu

                Article
                200512082
                10.1083/jcb.200512082
                2063724
                16520386
                Copyright © 2006, The Rockefeller University Press
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