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      Multivariate analysis of the bentho-demersal ichthyofauna along soft bottoms of the Eastern Atlantic: comparison between unvegetated substrates, seagrass meadows and sandy bottoms beneath sea-cage fish farms

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      Marine Biology

      Springer Nature

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          Patterns and processes in reef fish diversity.

          A central aim of ecology is to explain the heterogeneous distribution of biodiversity on earth. As expectations of diversity loss grow, this understanding is also critical for effective management and conservation. Although explanations for biodiversity patterns are still a matter for intense debate, they have often been considered to be scale-dependent. At large geographical scales, biogeographers have suggested that variation in species richness results from factors such as area, temperature, environmental stability, and geological processes, among many others. From the species pools generated by these large-scale processes, community ecologists have suggested that local-scale assembly of communities is achieved through processes such as competition, predation, recruitment, disturbances and immigration. Here we analyse hypotheses on speciation and dispersal for reef fish from the Indian and Pacific oceans and show how dispersal from a major centre of origination can simultaneously account for both large-scale gradients in species richness and the structure of local communities.
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            Scales of spatial patterns of distribution of intertidal invertebrates

            Few comparative studies of spatial patterns at different scales have examined several species in the same habitat or the same species over a range of habitats. Therefore, variability in patterns among species or among habitats has seldom been documented. This study quantifies spatial patterns of a suite of intertidal snails and a species of barnacle using a range of statistical techniques. Variability in densities was quantified from the scale of adjacent quadrats (over a distance of centimeters) to tens of kilometers. Significant differences in abundances occurred primarily at two spatial scales. Small-scale differences were found at the scales of centimeters or 1-2 m and, for many species on many shores, these accounted for most of the variability in abundances from place to place. These are likely to be determined by behavioural responses to small-scale patches of microhabitat. Large-scale differences in abundance were also found in most species at the scale of hundreds of meters alongshore. These are likely to be due to variation in recruitment (and/or mortality) because of limited dispersal by adults of these species. There was little or no additional variation among shores, separated by tens of kilometers, than was shown among patches of shore separated by hundreds of meters. Identification of the scale(s) at which significant differences in abundance are found focus attention on the processes (and the scales at which these processes operate) that influence patterns of distribution and abundance. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of various procedures are discussed.
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              The Nursery Role of Seagrass Meadows in the Upper and Lower Reaches of the Chesapeake Bay

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Marine Biology
                Marine Biology
                Springer Nature
                0025-3162
                1432-1793
                September 2005
                June 2005
                : 147
                : 5
                : 1229-1237
                Article
                10.1007/s00227-005-0018-1
                © 2005
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