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      Short-term effects of hurricanes Maria and Irma on forest birds of Puerto Rico

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          Abstract

          We compared occupancy in local assemblages of birds in forested areas across Puerto Rico during a winter before (2015) and shortly after (2018) the passage of hurricanes Irma and Maria. Using dynamic community models analyzed within a Bayesian framework, we found significant changes in detectability, with some species becoming more readily detected after the storms and others becoming more difficult to detect during surveys. Changes in occupancy were equally mixed. Five species–mostly granivores and omnivores, but also Black-whiskered Vireo ( Vireo altiloquus), a migratory insectivore–occupied more sites in 2018 than in 2015. Twelve species were less common after the hurricanes, including all of the obligate frugivores. Declines in site-occupancy rates were not only more common than increases, but tended to be of greater magnitude. Our results support the general conclusions that bird species respond largely independently to changes in forest structure caused by hurricanes, but that some dietary guilds, notably frugivores, are more sensitive and more likely to show changes in abundance or occupancy following strong storms.

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          ESTIMATING SITE OCCUPANCY RATES WHEN DETECTION PROBABILITIES ARE LESS THAN ONE

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            Estimating Size and Composition of Biological Communities by Modeling the Occurrence of Species

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              Estimating species richness and accumulation by modeling species occurrence and detectability.

              A statistical model is developed for estimating species richness and accumulation by formulating these community-level attributes as functions of model-based estimators of species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection of individual species. The model requires a sampling protocol wherein repeated observations are made at a collection of sample locations selected to be representative of the community. This temporal replication provides the data needed to resolve the ambiguity between species absence and nondetection when species are unobserved at sample locations. Estimates of species richness and accumulation are computed for two communities, an avian community and a butterfly community. Our model-based estimates suggest that detection failures in many bird species were attributed to low rates of occurrence, as opposed to simply low rates of detection. We estimate that the avian community contains a substantial number of uncommon species and that species richness greatly exceeds the number of species actually observed in the sample. In fact, predictions of species accumulation suggest that even doubling the number of sample locations would not have revealed all of the species in the community. In contrast, our analysis of the butterfly community suggests that many species are relatively common and that the estimated richness of species in the community is nearly equal to the number of species actually detected in the sample. Our predictions of species accumulation suggest that the number of sample locations actually used in the butterfly survey could have been cut in half and the asymptotic richness of species still would have been attained. Our approach of developing occurrence-based summaries of communities while allowing for imperfect detection of species is broadly applicable and should prove useful in the design and analysis of surveys of biodiversity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 June 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 6
                : e0214432
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Vermont Center for Ecostudies, Norwich, VT, United States of America
                [2 ] Quintas de Cupey Gardens, San Juan, United States of America
                National University Comahue, ARGENTINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9143-3789
                Article
                PONE-D-19-07216
                10.1371/journal.pone.0214432
                6559628
                31185024
                cb5466fe-0bcb-449d-9123-01508b4ea048
                © 2019 Lloyd et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 12 March 2019
                : 29 May 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 14
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000202, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service;
                Award ID: FI2AP0l2l4
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100006959, U.S. Forest Service;
                Award ID: 18-DG-11132762-404
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007430, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation;
                Award ID: 5050.16.048324
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Farallon Islands Foundation
                Award Recipient :
                Project funding was provided by National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Grant No. 5050.16.048324 to CCR; US Fish and Wildlife Service Grant No. FI2AP0l2l4 to CCR; USDA Forest Service, International Programs - Grant No. 18-DG-11132762-404 to CCR; and a grant to Sociedad Ornitológica Puertorriqueña Inc. from the Farallon Islands Foundation ( http://farallonislandsfoundation.org). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Forests
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Meteorology
                Storms
                Earth Sciences
                Natural Disasters
                Hurricanes
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Meteorology
                Storms
                Hurricanes
                Earth Sciences
                Geomorphology
                Topography
                Landforms
                Islands
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Pigeons
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                North America
                Caribbean
                Puerto Rico
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Research Design
                Survey Research
                Surveys
                Custom metadata
                All data files are available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7831424.

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