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      Dialysis‐Induced Oxidative Stress: Biological Aspects, Clinical Consequences, and Therapy

      1 , 1 , 1

      Seminars in Dialysis

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 61

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          Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells.

          Evolution has resorted to nitric oxide (NO), a tiny, reactive radical gas, to mediate both servoregulatory and cytotoxic functions. This article reviews how different forms of nitric oxide synthase help confer specificity and diversity on the effects of this remarkable signaling molecule.
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            Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation.

            Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several categories of reactive species, and a range of stable products whose chemistry is currently being elucidated. Among the reactive products, protein hydroperoxides can generate further radical fluxes on reaction with transition-metal ions; protein-bound reductants (notably dopa) can reduce transition-metal ions and thereby facilitate their reaction with hydroperoxides; and aldehydes may participate in Schiff-base formation and other reactions. Cells can detoxify some of the reactive species, e.g. by reducing protein hydroperoxides to unreactive hydroxides. Oxidized proteins are often functionally inactive and their unfolding is associated with enhanced susceptibility to proteinases. Thus cells can generally remove oxidized proteins by proteolysis. However, certain oxidized proteins are poorly handled by cells, and together with possible alterations in the rate of production of oxidized proteins, this may contribute to the observed accumulation and damaging actions of oxidized proteins during aging and in pathologies such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Protein oxidation may also sometimes play controlling roles in cellular remodelling and cell growth. Proteins are also key targets in defensive cytolysis and in inflammatory self-damage. The possibility of selective protection against protein oxidation (antioxidation) is raised.
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              Nitric oxide synthase: role in the genesis of vascular disease.

              The product of nitric oxide (NO) synthase is the most potent endogenous vasodilator known. No not only is a potent vasodilator, it also inhibits platelet adherence and aggregation, reduces adherence of leukocytes to the endothelium, and suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. A number of disorders are associated with reduced synthesis and/or increased degradation of vascular NO. These include hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and tobacco use. The endothelial dysfunction caused by these disorders contributes to the alterations in vascular function and structure observed in these conditions. A reduction in the activity of vascular NO likely plays a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis. Insights into the mechanisms by which NO production or activity is altered in these states will lead to new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of a number of vascular disorders, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and thrombosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Seminars in Dialysis
                Seminars in Dialysis
                Wiley
                0894-0959
                1525-139X
                December 21 2001
                May 2001
                December 21 2001
                May 2001
                : 14
                : 3
                : 193-199
                Affiliations
                [1 ]INSERM, Necker Hospital, Paris, France
                Article
                10.1046/j.1525-139X.2001.00052.x
                © 2001

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