54
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Formaldehyde stabilization facilitates lignin monomer production during biomass depolymerization

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Related collections

          Most cited references25

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics.

          Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic biopolymer that accounts for nearly 30% of the organic carbon on Earth and is one of the few renewable sources of aromatic chemicals. As the most recalcitrant of the three components of lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), lignin has been treated as a waste product in the pulp and paper industry, where it is burned to supply energy and recover pulping chemicals in the operation of paper mills. Extraction of higher value from lignin is increasingly recognized as being crucial to the economic viability of integrated biorefineries. Depolymerization is an important starting point for many lignin valorization strategies, because it could generate valuable aromatic chemicals and/or provide a source of low-molecular-mass feedstocks suitable for downstream processing. Commercial precedents show that certain types of lignin (lignosulphonates) may be converted into vanillin and other marketable products, but new technologies are needed to enhance the lignin value chain. The complex, irregular structure of lignin complicates chemical conversion efforts, and known depolymerization methods typically afford ill-defined products in low yields (that is, less than 10-20wt%). Here we describe a method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid that results in more than 60wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics. We present the discovery of this facile C-O cleavage method, its application to aspen lignin depolymerization, and mechanistic insights into the reaction. The broader implications of these results for lignin conversion and biomass refining are also considered.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Lignin depolymerisation strategies: towards valuable chemicals and fuels.

            Research on lignin deconstruction has recently become the center of interest for scientists and companies worldwide, racing towards harvesting fossil-fuel like aromatic compounds which are so durably put together by plants as products of millions of years of evolution. The natural complexity and high stability of lignin bonds (also as an evolutionary adaptation by plants) makes lignin depolymerization a highly challenging task. Several efforts have been directed towards a more profound understanding of the structure and composition of lignin in order to devise pathways to break down the biopolymer into useful compounds. The present contribution aims to provide an overview of key advances in the field of lignin depolymerisation. Protocols and technologies will be discussed as well as critically evaluated in terms of possibilities and potential for further industrial implementation.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived γ-valerolactone.

              Widespread production of biomass-derived fuels and chemicals will require cost-effective processes for breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose into their constituent sugars. Here, we report laboratory-scale production of soluble carbohydrates from corn stover, hardwood, and softwood at high yields (70 to 90%) in a solvent mixture of biomass-derived γ-valerolactone (GVL), water, and dilute acid (0.05 weight percent H2SO4). GVL promotes thermocatalytic saccharification through complete solubilization of the biomass, including the lignin fraction. The carbohydrates can be recovered and concentrated (up to 127 grams per liter) by extraction from GVL into an aqueous phase by addition of NaCl or liquid CO2. This strategy is well suited for catalytic upgrading to furans or fermentative upgrading to ethanol at high titers and near theoretical yield. We estimate through preliminary techno-economic modeling that the overall process could be cost-competitive for ethanol production, with biomass pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                October 20 2016
                October 20 2016
                : 354
                : 6310
                : 329-333
                Article
                10.1126/science.aaf7810
                27846566
                cb5541c3-02d2-4625-84d4-aa32a6ef8243
                © 2016

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article