Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a member of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) family, has emerged as the prototypical two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor with a multitude of interesting properties and promising device applications spanning all realms of electronics and optoelectronics. While possessing inherent advantages over conventional bulk semiconducting materials (such as Si, Ge and III-Vs) in terms of enabling ultra-short channel and, thus, energy efficient field-effect transistors (FETs), the mechanically flexible and transparent nature of MoS2 makes it even more attractive for use in ubiquitous flexible and transparent electronic systems. However, before the fascinating properties of MoS2 can be effectively harnessed and put to good use in practical and commercial applications, several important technological roadblocks pertaining to its contact, doping and mobility (µ) engineering must be overcome. This paper reviews the important technologically relevant properties of semiconducting 2D TMDCs followed by a discussion of the performance projections of, and the major engineering challenges that confront, 2D MoS2-based devices. Finally, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the various engineering solutions employed, thus far, to address the all-important issues of contact resistance (RC), controllable and area-selective doping, and charge carrier mobility enhancement in these devices. Several key experimental and theoretical results are cited to supplement the discussions and provide further insight.