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      Progress in Contact, Doping and Mobility Engineering of MoS2: An Atomically Thin 2D Semiconductor

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      Crystals

      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a member of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) family, has emerged as the prototypical two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor with a multitude of interesting properties and promising device applications spanning all realms of electronics and optoelectronics. While possessing inherent advantages over conventional bulk semiconducting materials (such as Si, Ge and III-Vs) in terms of enabling ultra-short channel and, thus, energy efficient field-effect transistors (FETs), the mechanically flexible and transparent nature of MoS2 makes it even more attractive for use in ubiquitous flexible and transparent electronic systems. However, before the fascinating properties of MoS2 can be effectively harnessed and put to good use in practical and commercial applications, several important technological roadblocks pertaining to its contact, doping and mobility (µ) engineering must be overcome. This paper reviews the important technologically relevant properties of semiconducting 2D TMDCs followed by a discussion of the performance projections of, and the major engineering challenges that confront, 2D MoS2-based devices. Finally, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the various engineering solutions employed, thus far, to address the all-important issues of contact resistance (RC), controllable and area-selective doping, and charge carrier mobility enhancement in these devices. Several key experimental and theoretical results are cited to supplement the discussions and provide further insight.

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          Most cited references 419

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            The rise of graphene

            Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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              Two-Dimensional Gas of Massless Dirac Fermions in Graphene

              Electronic properties of materials are commonly described by quasiparticles that behave as non-relativistic electrons with a finite mass and obey the Schroedinger equation. Here we report a condensed matter system where electron transport is essentially governed by the Dirac equation and charge carriers mimic relativistic particles with zero mass and an effective "speed of light" c* ~10^6m/s. Our studies of graphene - a single atomic layer of carbon - have revealed a variety of unusual phenomena characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions. In particular, we have observed that a) the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; b) graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the conductance quantum e^2/h, even when carrier concentrations tend to zero; c) the cyclotron mass m of massless carriers with energy E in graphene is described by equation E =mc*^2; and d) Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in graphene exhibit a phase shift of pi due to Berry's phase.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRYSBC
                Crystals
                Crystals
                MDPI AG
                2073-4352
                August 2018
                August 06 2018
                : 8
                : 8
                : 316
                10.3390/cryst8080316
                © 2018

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4352/8/8/316

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