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      Occurrence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats Translated title: Ocorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência felina em gatos

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          Abstract

          The occurrence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in Brazil has been previously described. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of FIV infection in 454 blood samples from healthy and sick domestic cats from 13 cities of São Paulo State, Brazil as well as to evaluate the risk factors associated with the infection. The results showed that 14.7% (67/454) of the cats were infected with FIV. The clinical evaluation showed that 29.2% of the FIV-positive animals were sick, while 7.3% did not show any type of clinical manifestation. In addition, the vast majority (23.1%) of positive cases corresponded to free-roaming owned cats. The incidence of FIV infection was higher in males (20.3%) than in females (9.7%). The results suggest that certain characteristics such as gender, health status and lifestyle may be associated with the risk of being infected with FIV in the population of cats studied.

          Translated abstract

          No Brasil, a ocorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV) já foi descrita. Neste estudo, objetivou-se investigar a freqüência da infecção pelo FIV em 454 amostras de sangue de gatos domésticos doentes e sadios, oriundos de 13 cidades do Estado de São Paulo, assim como avaliar os fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo FIV. Os resultados demonstraram que 14,7% (67/454) dos gatos estavam infectados pelo FIV. A avaliação clínica dos animais investigados mostrou que 29,2% dos animais soropositivos para FIV estavam doentes, enquanto 7,3% não apresentavam nenhuma manifestação clínica. Além disso, a vasta maioria dos animais positivos (23,1%) vivia em residências e tinha livre acesso à rua. A incidência da infecção pelo FIV foi maior nos gatos machos (20,3%) do que nas fêmeas (9,7%). Os resultados sugerem que certas características como sexo, estilo de vida e estado de saúde podem estar associadas ao risco de contrair a infecção pelo FIV na população de gatos estudada.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Isolation of a T-lymphotropic virus from domestic cats with an immunodeficiency-like syndrome.

          A highly T-lymphotropic virus was isolated from cats in a cattery in which all the animals were seronegative for feline leukemia virus. A number of cats in one pen had died and several had an immunodeficiency-like syndrome. Only 1 of 18 normal cats in the cattery showed serologic evidence of infection with this new virus, whereas 10 of 25 cats with signs of ill health were seropositive for the virus. Tentatively designated feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus, this new feline retrovirus appears to be antigenically distinct from human immunodeficiency virus. There is no evidence for cat-to-human transmission of the agent. Kittens experimentally infected by way of blood or plasma from naturally infected animals developed generalized lymphadenopathy several weeks later, became transiently febrile and leukopenic, and continued to show a generalized lymphadenopathy 5 months after infection.
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            Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

            The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies.
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              FIV infection of the domestic cat: an animal model for AIDS.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cr
                Ciência Rural
                Cienc. Rural
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria )
                1678-4596
                November 2008
                : 38
                : 8
                : 2245-2249
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brasil
                Article
                S0103-84782008000800024
                10.1590/S0103-84782008000800024

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Categories
                AGRONOMY

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