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Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes

Insulin, Biological Transport, drug effects, Capillaries, physiology, physiopathology, Denmark, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, European Continental Ancestry Group, Exercise, Glucose, metabolism, Glucose Transporter Type 4, Glycogen, Humans, pharmacology, Leg, Male, Monosaccharide Transport Proteins, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Muscle Proteins, Muscle, Skeletal, Physical Fitness, Reference Values, Tensile Strength

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      Abstract

      Strength training represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect on insulin action and key proteins in skeletal muscle, and the necessary volume of strength training is unknown. A total of 10 type 2 diabetic subjects and 7 healthy men (control subjects) strength-trained one leg three times per week for 6 weeks while the other leg remained untrained. Each session lasted no more than 30 min. After strength training, muscle biopsies were obtained, and an isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterio-femoral venous catheterization of both legs was carried out. In general, qualitatively similar responses were obtained in both groups. During the clamp, leg blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in trained versus untrained legs, but despite this, arterio-venous extraction glucose did not decrease in trained legs. Thus, leg glucose clearance was increased in trained legs (P < 0.05) and more than explained by increases in muscle mass. Strength training increased protein content of GLUT4, insulin receptor, protein kinase B-alpha/beta, glycogen synthase (GS), and GS total activity. In conclusion, we found that strength training for 30 min three times per week increases insulin action in skeletal muscle in both groups. The adaptation is attributable to local contraction-mediated mechanisms involving key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade.

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      Effects of Exercise on Glycemic Control and Body Mass in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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        Mobilization of visceral adipose tissue related to the improvement in insulin sensitivity in response to physical training in NIDDM. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplements.

        To evaluate the effects of an intense physical training program on abdominal fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity in patients with NIDDM and to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplements influence these effects. Twenty-four patients (ages 45 +/- 2 [mean +/- SE] years, BMI 30.2 +/- 0.9 kg/m2, HbA1c 7.9 +/- 0.3%) were randomly assigned to four groups: training plus BCAA supplement (n = 6), training plus placebo (n = 6), sedentary plus BCAA supplement (n = 6), and sedentary plus placebo (n = 6). Physical training consisted of a supervised 45-min cycling exercise at 75% of their oxygen uptake peak (VO2 peak) two times per week and an intermittent exercise one time per week for 2 months. Patients who exercised increased their VO2 peak by 41% and their insulin sensitivity by 46%. Physical training significantly decreased abdominal fat evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (umbilicus), with a greater loss of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (48%) in comparison with the loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue (18%), but did not significantly affect body weight. The change in visceral abdominal fat was associated with the improvement in insulin sensitivity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). BCAA supplementation had no effect on abdominal fat and glucose metabolism. Physical training resulted in an improvement in insulin sensitivity with concomitant loss of VAT and should be included in the treatment program for patients with NIDDM.
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          Combined aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycemic control and fitness in type 2 diabetes.

          We investigated the effect of an 8 week circuit training (CT) program, combining aerobic and resistance exercise, on indices of glycemic control, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and body composition in 16 subjects (age 52 +/- 2 years) with type 2 diabetes using a prospective randomised crossover protocol. Submaximal exercise heart rate and rate pressure product were significantly lower after training (P<0.05), whilst ventilatory threshold increased (11.8 +/- 0.7 vs 13.8 +/- 0.6 ml kg(-1)min(-1), P<0.001). Muscular strength also increased with training (403 +/- 30 to 456 +/- 31 kg, P<0.001), whilst skinfolds (148.7 +/- 11.5 vs 141.1 +/- 10.7 mm, P<0.05), % body fat (29.5 +/- 1.0 vs 28.7 +/- 1.1%, P<0.05) and waist:hip ratio (99.2 +/- 1.5 vs 97.9 +/- 1.4%, P<0.05) significantly decreased. Concurrently, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.05) and exercise test duration (P<0.001) increased following training, whilst glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05) and fasting blood glucose (P<0.05) decreased. CT is an effective method of training that improved functional capacity, lean body mass, strength and glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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