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      What Have the New Definition of Acute Myocardial Infarction and the Introduction of Troponin Measurement Done to the Coronary Care Unit?

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          Objective: To assess the impact of the new American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology definition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the introduction of troponin measurement on the coronary care unit (CCU). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary care university hospital. All admissions to the CCU during the year before (period 1, year 2000, n = 1,134) and the year after (period 2, year 2002, n = 1,360) the introduction of troponin measurement and the new AMI definition were studied. We studied baseline characteristics, case load, distribution of admission diagnoses, management and outcome of patients in the two periods. Results: There was a 20% increase in the number of CCU admissions, driven solely by a 141% increase in the burden of non-ST elevation AMI (NSTEMI) (p < 0.01). This increase was not a mere reflection of a change in diagnostic criteria, as the overall burden of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) (NSTEMI + unstable angina) increased by 46%, suggesting referral of many more patients to the CCU. Despite a 42% increase in the number of angiograms performed, the proportion of ACS patients who had an angiogram declined. AMI patients in period 2 were older and had higher rates of coronary risk factors but had a higher chance of receiving a guideline-based therapy. Length of CCU stay decreased by a whole day for all ACS patients. 30-day mortality for AMI patients did not change significantly. Conclusions: The new AMI definition had a dramatic impact on the CCU case load, case mix and length of stay and on the ability to provide early coronary angiography.

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          Comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable coronary syndromes treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban.

          There is continued debate as to whether a routine, early invasive strategy is superior to a conservative strategy for the management of unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation. We enrolled 2220 patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who had electrocardiographic evidence of changes in the ST segment or T wave, elevated levels of cardiac markers, a history of coronary artery disease, or all three findings. All patients were treated with aspirin, heparin, and the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban. They were randomly assigned to an early invasive strategy, which included routine catheterization within 4 to 48 hours and revascularization as appropriate, or to a more conservative (selectively invasive) strategy, in which catheterization was performed only if the patient had objective evidence of recurrent ischemia or an abnormal stress test. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome at six months. At six months, the rate of the primary end point was 15.9 percent with use of the early invasive strategy and 19.4 percent with use of the conservative strategy (odds ratio, 0.78; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.97; P=0.025). The rate of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at six months was similarly reduced (7.3 percent vs. 9.5 percent; odds ratio, 0.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.00; P<0.05). In patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who were treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban, the use of an early invasive strategy significantly reduced the incidence of major cardiac events. These data support a policy involving broader use of the early inhibition of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in combination with an early invasive strategy in such patients.
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            Invasive compared with non-invasive treatment in unstable coronary-artery disease: FRISC II prospective randomised multicentre study

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              Multimarker Approach to Risk Stratification in Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                September 2004
                29 September 2004
                : 102
                : 3
                : 171-176
                Department of Cardiology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel
                80487 Cardiology 2004;102:171–176
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 10, Pages: 6
                Coronary Care


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