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      Review of Mass Drug Administration for Malaria and Its Operational Challenges

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          Abstract

          Mass drug administration (MDA) was a component of many malaria programs during the eradication era, but later was seldomly deployed due to concerns regarding efficacy and feasibility and fear of accelerating drug resistance. Recently, however, there has been renewed interest in the role of MDA as an elimination tool. Following a 2013 Cochrane Review that focused on the quantitative effects of malaria MDA, we have conducted a systematic, qualitative review of published, unpublished, and gray literature documenting past MDA experiences. We have also consulted with field experts, using their historical experience to provide an informed, contextual perspective on the role of MDA in malaria elimination. Substantial knowledge gaps remain and more research is necessary, particularly on optimal target population size, methods to improve coverage, and primaquine safety. Despite these gaps, MDA has been used successfully to control and eliminate Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in the past, and should be considered as part of a comprehensive malaria elimination strategy in specific settings.

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          Most cited references39

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          Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria

          Y-W Ho (2010)
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            A systematic review of mathematical models of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission: 1970–2010

            Mathematical models of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission originated in the early twentieth century to provide insights into how to most effectively combat malaria. The foundations of the Ross–Macdonald theory were established by 1970. Since then, there has been a growing interest in reducing the public health burden of mosquito-borne pathogens and an expanding use of models to guide their control. To assess how theory has changed to confront evolving public health challenges, we compiled a bibliography of 325 publications from 1970 through 2010 that included at least one mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and then used a 79-part questionnaire to classify each of 388 associated models according to its biological assumptions. As a composite measure to interpret the multidimensional results of our survey, we assigned a numerical value to each model that measured its similarity to 15 core assumptions of the Ross–Macdonald model. Although the analysis illustrated a growing acknowledgement of geographical, ecological and epidemiological complexities in modelling transmission, most models during the past 40 years closely resemble the Ross–Macdonald model. Modern theory would benefit from an expansion around the concepts of heterogeneous mosquito biting, poorly mixed mosquito-host encounters, spatial heterogeneity and temporal variation in the transmission process.
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              Malaria eradication on islands.

              To be successful, a malaria control programme needs to be tailored to the local epidemiological characteristics. Vanuatu consists of 80 inhabited islands in the Southwest Pacific, with hypoendemic and mesoendemic malaria and suitable conditions for sustained parasite elimination. We aimed to assess whether malaria can be eliminated on isolated islands. Weekly mass drug administration of chloroquine, pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar), and primaquine was carried out on the entire population of 718 inhabitants of Aneityum island for 9 weeks in 1991 before the onset of the rainy season. Simultaneously with the administration of drugs, permethrin-impregnated bednets were distributed to the entire population. Larvivorous fish were also introduced into several identified breeding sites of Anopheles farauti. Periodic malariometric monitoring has continued for the past 9 years. Two additional islands of Vanuatu, one with and one without malaria transmission, have been monitored for comparison. High community involvement as measured by drug compliance (88.3%) and bednet provision (0.94 nets per villager) has resulted in sustained interruption of malaria transmission in Aneityum. The surveys showed complete absence of Plasmodium falciparum after mass drug administration, and P. vivax disappeared from 1996 onwards, with the exception of two instances of imported infections (one mixed infection in 1993 and one P. vivax infection in 1999). Malaria can be eliminated on isolated islands with well-adapted short-term mass drug administration and sustained vector control if there is a high degree of community participation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Am J Trop Med Hyg
                Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg
                tpmd
                The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                0002-9637
                1476-1645
                08 July 2015
                08 July 2015
                : 93
                : 1
                : 125-134
                Affiliations
                The Malaria Elimination Initiative, Global Health Group, University of California, San Francisco, California; Malaria Branch and Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Bangkok, Thailand; Australian Army Malaria Institute, Enoggera, Australia; Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
                Author notes
                *Address correspondence to Jimee Hwang, The Malaria Elimination Initiative, Global Health Group, University of California, 550 16th Street, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94158. E-mail: gdq1@ 123456cdc.gov
                Article
                10.4269/ajtmh.14-0254
                4497884
                26013371
                cb941d6a-801a-474f-bcd2-1f44b455d459
                ©The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 25 April 2014
                : 23 February 2015
                Categories
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                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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