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      Turner’s Syndrome: A Paediatric Perspective

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          In childhood the symptoms with the greatest impact on girls with Turner’s syndrome are: (1) congenital cardiac abnormalities (which can be corrected by surgical intervention); (2) short stature (mean adult height between 142 and 147 cm); and (3) ovarian failure (absent spontaneous puberty). Recent studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment in young girls (8 years of age or younger) with Turner’s syndrome results in normalization of adult height in most of the girls when using the ‘standard’ GH dose of about 4 IU/m<sup>2</sup> per day (≈0.045 mg/kg per day). Higher GH doses (6 or 8 IU/m<sup>2</sup> per day) or the use of oxandrolone may be more effective, but their efficacy on adult height and safety in the very long term still have to be proven. If GH treatment is started early, low-dose oestrogens for induction of puberty can be given at 12 years of age without interfering with the capability of the GH treatment to normalize adult height. GH does not seem to have negative side effects on body proportions, cardiac dimensions, blood pressure, carbohydrate metabolism or bone mineral density.

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          A preliminary study of growth hormone in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy.

          Cardiac hypertrophy is a physiologic response that allows the heart to adapt to an excess hemodynamic load. We hypothesized that inducing cardiac hypertrophy with recombinant human growth hormone might be an effective approach to the treatment of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a condition in which compensatory cardiac hypertrophy is believed to be deficient. Seven patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and moderate-to-severe heart failure were studied at base line, after three months of therapy with human growth hormone, and three months after the discontinuation of growth hormone. Standard therapy for heart failure was continued throughout the study. Cardiac function was evaluated with Doppler echocardiography, right-heart catheterization, and exercise testing. When administered at a dose of 14 IU per week, growth hormone doubled the serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I. Growth hormone increased left-ventricular-wall thickness and reduced chamber size significantly. Consequently, end-systolic wall stress (a function of both wall thickness and chamber size) fell markedly (from a mean [+/-SE] of 144+/-11 to 85+/-8 dyn per square centimeter, P<0.001). Growth hormone improved cardiac output, particularly during exercise (from 7.4+/-0.7 to 9.7+/-0.9 liters per minute, P=0.003), and enhanced ventricular work, despite reductions in myocardial oxygen consumption (from 56+/-6 to 39+/-5 ml per minute, P=0.005) and energy production (from 1014+/-100 to 701+/-80 J per minute, P=0.002). Thus, ventricular mechanical efficiency rose from 9+/-2 to 21+/-5 percent (P=0.006). Growth hormone also improved clinical symptoms, exercise capacity, and the patients' quality of life. The changes in cardiac size and shape, systolic function, and exercise tolerance were partially reversed three months after growth hormone was discontinued. Recombinant human growth hormone administered for three months to patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy increased myocardial mass and reduced the size of the left ventricular chamber, resulting in improvement in hemodynamics, myocardial energy metabolism, and clinical status.
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            Does growth-hormone supplementation affect adult height in Turner's syndrome?

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              A longitudinal study on bone mineral density until adulthood in girls with Turner's syndrome participating in a growth hormone injection frequency-response trial


                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                January 2002
                17 November 2004
                : 56
                : Suppl 1
                : 38-43
                Department of Paediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Sophia Children’s Hospital/University Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                48133 Horm Res 2001;56(suppl 1):38–43
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 41, Pages: 6


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