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      Turner’s Syndrome: A Paediatric Perspective

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          Abstract

          In childhood the symptoms with the greatest impact on girls with Turner’s syndrome are: (1) congenital cardiac abnormalities (which can be corrected by surgical intervention); (2) short stature (mean adult height between 142 and 147 cm); and (3) ovarian failure (absent spontaneous puberty). Recent studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment in young girls (8 years of age or younger) with Turner’s syndrome results in normalization of adult height in most of the girls when using the ‘standard’ GH dose of about 4 IU/m<sup>2</sup> per day (≈0.045 mg/kg per day). Higher GH doses (6 or 8 IU/m<sup>2</sup> per day) or the use of oxandrolone may be more effective, but their efficacy on adult height and safety in the very long term still have to be proven. If GH treatment is started early, low-dose oestrogens for induction of puberty can be given at 12 years of age without interfering with the capability of the GH treatment to normalize adult height. GH does not seem to have negative side effects on body proportions, cardiac dimensions, blood pressure, carbohydrate metabolism or bone mineral density.

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          Most cited references 3

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          A preliminary study of growth hormone in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy.

          Cardiac hypertrophy is a physiologic response that allows the heart to adapt to an excess hemodynamic load. We hypothesized that inducing cardiac hypertrophy with recombinant human growth hormone might be an effective approach to the treatment of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a condition in which compensatory cardiac hypertrophy is believed to be deficient. Seven patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and moderate-to-severe heart failure were studied at base line, after three months of therapy with human growth hormone, and three months after the discontinuation of growth hormone. Standard therapy for heart failure was continued throughout the study. Cardiac function was evaluated with Doppler echocardiography, right-heart catheterization, and exercise testing. When administered at a dose of 14 IU per week, growth hormone doubled the serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I. Growth hormone increased left-ventricular-wall thickness and reduced chamber size significantly. Consequently, end-systolic wall stress (a function of both wall thickness and chamber size) fell markedly (from a mean [+/-SE] of 144+/-11 to 85+/-8 dyn per square centimeter, P<0.001). Growth hormone improved cardiac output, particularly during exercise (from 7.4+/-0.7 to 9.7+/-0.9 liters per minute, P=0.003), and enhanced ventricular work, despite reductions in myocardial oxygen consumption (from 56+/-6 to 39+/-5 ml per minute, P=0.005) and energy production (from 1014+/-100 to 701+/-80 J per minute, P=0.002). Thus, ventricular mechanical efficiency rose from 9+/-2 to 21+/-5 percent (P=0.006). Growth hormone also improved clinical symptoms, exercise capacity, and the patients' quality of life. The changes in cardiac size and shape, systolic function, and exercise tolerance were partially reversed three months after growth hormone was discontinued. Recombinant human growth hormone administered for three months to patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy increased myocardial mass and reduced the size of the left ventricular chamber, resulting in improvement in hemodynamics, myocardial energy metabolism, and clinical status.
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            Does growth-hormone supplementation affect adult height in Turner's syndrome?

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              A longitudinal study on bone mineral density until adulthood in girls with Turner's syndrome participating in a growth hormone injection frequency-response trial

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7369-6
                978-3-318-00810-4
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2001
                January 2002
                17 November 2004
                : 56
                : Suppl 1
                : 38-43
                Affiliations
                Department of Paediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Sophia Children’s Hospital/University Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                48133 Horm Res 2001;56(suppl 1):38–43
                10.1159/000048133
                11786684
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 41, Pages: 6
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