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      Cytokines and Abnormal Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

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          Abstract

          Clear evidence indicates that cytokines, for instance, adipokines, hepatokines, inflammatory cytokines, myokines, and osteokines, contribute substantially to the development of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Some cytokines play a positive role in metabolism action, while others have a negative metabolic role linking to the induction of metabolic dysfunction. The mechanisms involved are not fully understood, but are associated with lipid accumulation in organs and tissues, especially in the adipose and liver tissue, changes in energy metabolism, and inflammatory signals derived from various cell types, including immune cells. In this review, we describe the roles of certain cytokines in the regulation of metabolism and inter-organ signaling in regard to the pathophysiological aspects. Given the disease-related changes in circulating levels of relevant cytokines, these factors may serve as biomarkers for the early detection of metabolic disorders. Moreover, based on preclinical studies, certain cytokines that can induce improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism and immune response may emerge as novel targets of broader and more efficacious treatments and prevention of metabolic disease.

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          Most cited references152

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          Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ.

          During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines. The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets. Other myokines include the osteogenic factors IGF-1 and FGF-2; FSTL-1, which improves the endothelial function of the vascular system; and the PGC-1α-dependent myokine irisin, which drives brown-fat-like development. Studies in the past few years suggest the existence of yet unidentified factors, secreted from muscle cells, which may influence cancer cell growth and pancreas function. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction; therefore, physical inactivity probably leads to an altered myokine response, which could provide a potential mechanism for the association between sedentary behaviour and many chronic diseases.
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            MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity.

            Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that affect the insulin sensitivity of other tissues. We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Mice engineered to express an MCP-1 transgene in adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter exhibited insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and increased hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue induced by a high-fat diet were reduced extensively in MCP-1 homozygous KO mice compared with WT animals. Finally, acute expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MCP-1 ameliorated insulin resistance in db/db mice and in WT mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice.
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              Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects.

              Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein; Acrp30) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that acts as an antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine. Levels of adiponectin in the blood are decreased under conditions of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects and ameliorates insulin resistance in mice. Conversely, adiponectin-deficient mice exhibit insulin resistance and diabetes. This insulin-sensitizing effect of adiponectin seems to be mediated by an increase in fatty-acid oxidation through activation of AMP kinase and PPAR-alpha. Here we report the cloning of complementary DNAs encoding adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) by expression cloning. AdipoR1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is predominantly expressed in the liver. These two adiponectin receptors are predicted to contain seven transmembrane domains, but to be structurally and functionally distinct from G-protein-coupled receptors. Expression of AdipoR1/R2 or suppression of AdipoR1/R2 expression by small-interfering RNA supports our conclusion that they serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin, and that they mediate increased AMP kinase and PPAR-alpha ligand activities, as well as fatty-acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                30 October 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 703
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                [2] 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Digestion and Nutrition, Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yoshimi Nakagawa, University of Tsukuba, Japan

                Reviewed by: Yoshio Fujitani, Gunma University, Japan; Bilikere S. Dwarakanath, Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center (SPHIC), China

                *Correspondence: Qing Su suqing@ 123456xinhuamed.com.cn

                This article was submitted to Clinical Diabetes, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00703
                6833922
                31736870
                cb9cb5d0-27bb-47ac-83fd-e80fdbd4e37b
                Copyright © 2019 Shi, Fan, Su and Yang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 28 June 2019
                : 30 September 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 215, Pages: 16, Words: 13842
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81670743
                Award ID: 81370953
                Funded by: Shanghai Health System Outstanding Young Talents Training Program
                Award ID: XYQ2013098
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                cytokine,glucose metabolism,lipid metabolism,insulin resistance,inflammation

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