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      Exclusion of Serum- and Glucocorticoid-Induced Kinase 1 (SGK1) as a Candidate Gene for Genetically Heterogeneous Renal Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type I in Eight Families

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          Abstract

          Objective: Autosomal-dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is mostly caused by mutations in the mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2) gene. However, several kindreds with clinical signs of PHA1 but without NR3C2 gene mutations or deletions are reported. Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (Sgk1) is involved in epithelial sodium reabsorption by facilitating the accumulation of the epithelial sodium channel in the plasma membrane. Therefore variations in the SGK1 gene may aggravate renal salt loss or cause PHA1. Methods: The SGK1 genewas sequenced in 10 patients with the typical clinical signs of PHA1 but without NR3C2 or SCNN1A, SCNN1B and SCNN1C gene mutation. Results: No disease-causing SGK1 gene mutation was detected in the studied PHA1 patient group. Two novel intronic SNPs which were also present in the normal population were detected in 2 patients. Conclusion: Our data do not support that SGK1 gene variations are disease-causing factors in genetically unexplained PHA1. Therefore, systematic investigation of other factors downstream of the MR involved in epithelial sodium reabsorption is warranted in patients with autosomal-dominant PHA1.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Parallel genotyping of over 10,000 SNPs using a one-primer assay on a high-density oligonucleotide array.

          The analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is increasingly utilized to investigate the genetic causes of complex human diseases. Here we present a high-throughput genotyping platform that uses a one-primer assay to genotype over 10,000 SNPs per individual on a single oligonucleotide array. This approach uses restriction digestion to fractionate the genome, followed by amplification of a specific fractionated subset of the genome. The resulting reduction in genome complexity enables allele-specific hybridization to the array. The selection of SNPs was primarily determined by computer-predicted lengths of restriction fragments containing the SNPs, and was further driven by strict empirical measurements of accuracy, reproducibility, and average call rate, which we estimate to be >99.5%, >99.9%, and>95%, respectively [corrected]. With average heterozygosity of 0.38 and genome scan resolution of 0.31 cM, the SNP array is a viable alternative to panels of microsatellites (STRs). As a demonstration of the utility of the genotyping platform in whole-genome scans, we have replicated and refined a linkage region on chromosome 2p for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and thyroid disease, previously identified using a panel of microsatellite (STR) markers.
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            Cloning and characterization of a putative human serine/threonine protein kinase transcriptionally modified during anisotonic and isotonic alterations of cell volume.

            Hepatic metabolism and gene expression are among other regulatory mechanisms controlled by the cellular hydration state, which changes rapidly in response to anisotonicity, concentrative substrate uptake, oxidative stress, and under the influence of hormones such as insulin and glucagon. Differential screening for cell volume sensitive transcripts in a human hepatoma cell line revealed a gene for a putative serine/threonine kinase, h-sgk, which has 98% sequence identity to a serum- and glucocorticoid regulated kinase, sgk, cloned from a rat mammary tumor cell line. h-sgk transcript levels were strongly altered during anisotonic and isotonic cell volume changes. Within 30 min h-sgk RNA was, independent of de novo protein synthesis, induced upon cell shrinkage and, due to a complete stop in h-sgk transcription, reduced upon cell swelling. Comparable changes of sgk transcript levels were observed in a renal epithelial cell line. h-sgk mRNA was detected in all human tissues tested, with the highest levels in pancreas, liver, and heart. The putative serine/threonine protein kinase h-sgk may provide a functional link between the cellular hydration state and metabolic control.
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              A salt wasting syndrome in infancy.

               D CHEEK,  Ivan Perry (1958)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                April 2007
                23 February 2007
                : 27
                : 2
                : 164-169
                Affiliations
                Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany
                Article
                100107 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:164–169
                10.1159/000100107
                17317952
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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