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Recent Progress on Two-Dimensional Nanoflake Ensembles for Energy Storage Applications

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      Abstract

      The rational design and synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) nanoflake ensemble-based materials have garnered great attention owing to the properties of the components of these materials, such as high mechanical flexibility, high specific surface area, numerous active sites, chemical stability, and superior electrical and thermal conductivity. These properties render the 2D ensembles great choices as alternative electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems. More recently, recognition of the numerous advantages of these 2D ensemble structures has led to the realization that the performance of certain devices could be significantly enhanced by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) architectures that can furnish an increased number of active sites. The present review summarizes the recent progress in 2D ensemble-based materials for energy storage applications, including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and sodium-ion batteries. Further, perspectives relating to the challenges and opportunities in this promising research area are discussed.

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      The rise of graphene

      Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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        Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries.

        Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems.
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          Materials for electrochemical capacitors.

          Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            ISNI 0000 0001 2189 3846, GRID grid.207374.5, College of Materials Science and Engineering, , Zhengzhou University, ; Zhengzhou, 450001 People’s Republic of China
            Contributors
            zjn@zzu.edu.cn
            Journal
            Nanomicro Lett
            Nanomicro Lett
            Nano-Micro Letters
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            2311-6706
            2150-5551
            20 August 2018
            20 August 2018
            2018
            : 10
            : 4
            6199115
            219
            10.1007/s40820-018-0219-z
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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