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      The green tea modulates large intestinal microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome altered through chronic UVB-exposure

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          Abstract

          The attenuating effects of green tea supplements (GTS) against the ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced skin damages are distinguished. However, the concomitant effects of GTS on the large intestinal microbiomes and associated metabolomes are largely unclear. Herein, we performed an integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis to uncover the esoteric links between gut microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome maneuvered in the large intestine of UVB-exposed mice subjected to dietary GTS. In UVB-exposed mice groups (UVB), class Bacilli and order Bifidobacteriales were observed as discriminant taxa with decreased lysophospholipid levels compared to the unexposed mice groups subjected to normal diet (NOR). Conversely, in GTS fed UVB-exposed mice (U+GTS), the gut-microbiome diversity was greatly enhanced with enrichment in the classes, Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia, as well as genera, Allobaculum and Lachnoclostridium. Additionally, the gut endogenous metabolomes changed with an increase in amino acids, fatty acids, lipids, and bile acids contents coupled with a decrease in nucleobases and carbohydrate levels. The altered metabolomes exhibited high correlations with GTS enriched intestinal microflora. Intriguingly, the various conjugates of green tea catechins viz., sulfated, glucuronided, and methylated ones including their exogenous derivatives were detected from large intestinal contents and liver samples. Hence, we conjecture that the metabolic conversions for the molecular components in GTS strongly influenced the gut micro-environment in UVB-exposed mice groups, ergo modulate their gut-microbiome as well as exo/endogenous metabolomes.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health.

          The biological properties of dietary polyphenols are greatly dependent on their bioavailability that, in turn, is largely influenced by their degree of polymerization. The gut microbiota play a key role in modulating the production, bioavailability and, thus, the biological activities of phenolic metabolites, particularly after the intake of food containing high-molecular-weight polyphenols. In addition, evidence is emerging on the activity of dietary polyphenols on the modulation of the colonic microbial population composition or activity. However, although the great range of health-promoting activities of dietary polyphenols has been widely investigated, their effect on the modulation of the gut ecology and the two-way relationship "polyphenols ↔ microbiota" are still poorly understood. Only a few studies have examined the impact of dietary polyphenols on the human gut microbiota, and most were focused on single polyphenol molecules and selected bacterial populations. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and polyphenols, the mechanisms of action and the consequences of these interactions on human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema.

            It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts. We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P = .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P = .02 and P = .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P = .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R [edgeR] test: P = .008, q = 0.02). Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Diet and the intestinal microbiome: associations, functions, and implications for health and disease.

              The mutual relationship between the intestinal microbiota and its mammalian host is influenced by diet. Consumption of various nutrients affects the structure of the microbial community and provides substrates for microbial metabolism. The microbiota can produce small molecules that are absorbed by the host and affect many important physiological processes. Age-dependent and societal differences in the intestinal microbiota could result from differences in diet. Examples include differences in the intestinal microbiota of breastfed vs formula-fed infants or differences in microbial richness in people who consume an agrarian plant-based vs a Western diet, which is high in meat and fat. We review how diet affects the structure and metabolome of the human intestinal microbiome and may contribute to health or the pathogenesis of disorders such as coronary vascular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Methodology
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: Validation
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: MethodologyRole: Validation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: Validation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                8 November 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ] Department of Genetic Engineering & Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea
                [3 ] College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
                [4 ] Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Korea University, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-19844
                10.1371/journal.pone.0187154
                5695601
                29117187
                © 2017 Jung et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003624, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs;
                Award ID: 916005-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725, National Research Foundation of Korea;
                Award ID: 2016M3A9A5923160
                Award Recipient :
                This study was funded by the Strategic Initiative for Microbiomes in Agriculture and Food, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea (as part of the (multi-ministerial) Genome Technology to Business Translation Program) (Grant No.: 916005-2) to CHL, and by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation funded by the Korean government, MSIP (2016M3A9A5923160) to CHL.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Digestive System
                Gastrointestinal Tract
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Digestive System
                Gastrointestinal Tract
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbiome
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Genomics
                Microbial Genomics
                Microbiome
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Microbial Genomics
                Microbiome
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Digestive System
                Gastrointestinal Tract
                Large Intestine
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Digestive System
                Gastrointestinal Tract
                Large Intestine
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Metabolism
                Metabolites
                Physical sciences
                Physics
                Electromagnetic radiation
                Light
                Ultraviolet radiation
                Ultraviolet B
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Beverages
                Tea
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Beverages
                Tea
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Compounds
                Salts
                Sulfates
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Bile
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Bile
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Bile
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Bile
                Custom metadata
                Data are available from MetaboLights database ( http://www.ebi.ac.uk/metabolights/MTBLS527).

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