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      Is Open Access

      A network pharmacology approach to determine the synergetic mechanisms of herb couple for treating rheumatic arthritis

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic mechanism(s) of Clematis chinensis Osbeck/ Notopterygium incisum K.C. Ting ex H.T (CN).

          Methods

          A network pharmacology approach integrating prediction of ingredients, target exploration, network construction, module partition and pathway analysis was used.

          Results

          This approach successfully helped to identify 12 active ingredients of CN, interacting with 13 key targets (Akt1, STAT3, TNFsf13, TP53, EPHB2, IL-10, IL-6, TNF, MAPK8, IL-8, RELA, ROS1 and STAT4). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis indicated that CN-regulated pathways were mainly classified into signal transduction and immune system.

          Conclusion

          The present work may help to illustrate the mechanism(s) of action of CN, and it may provide a better understanding of antirheumatic effects.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Angiogenesis in life, disease and medicine.

          The growth of blood vessels (a process known as angiogenesis) is essential for organ growth and repair. An imbalance in this process contributes to numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischaemic, infectious and immune disorders. Recently, the first anti-angiogenic agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer and blindness. Angiogenesis research will probably change the face of medicine in the next decades, with more than 500 million people worldwide predicted to benefit from pro- or anti-angiogenesis treatments.
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            JAK–STAT Signaling as a Target for Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases: Current and Future Prospects

            The Janus kinase/signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) signaling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Many cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases use JAKs and STATs to transduce intracellular signals. Mutations in JAK and STAT genes cause a number of immunodeficiency syndromes, and polymorphisms in these genes are associated with autoimmune diseases. The success of small-molecule JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) in the treatment of rheumatologic disease demonstrates that intracellular signaling pathways can be targeted therapeutically to treat autoimmunity. Tofacitinib, the first rheumatologic Jakinib, is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for rheumatoid arthritis and is currently under investigation for other autoimmune diseases. Many other Jakinibs are in preclinical development or in various phases of clinical trials. This review describes the JAK–STAT pathway, outlines its role in autoimmunity, and explains the rationale/pre-clinical evidence for targeting JAK–STAT signaling. The safety and clinical efficacy of the Jakinibs are reviewed, starting with the FDA-approved Jakinib tofacitinib, and continuing on to next-generation Jakinibs. Recent and ongoing studies are emphasized, with a focus on emerging indications for JAK inhibition and novel mechanisms of JAK–STAT signaling blockade.
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              Molecular pathways: ROS1 fusion proteins in cancer.

              Genetic alterations that lead to constitutive activation of kinases are frequently observed in cancer. In many cases, the growth and survival of tumor cells rely upon an activated kinase such that inhibition of its activity is an effective anticancer therapy. ROS1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has recently been shown to undergo genetic rearrangements in a variety of human cancers, including glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cholangiocarcinoma, ovarian cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, angiosarcoma, and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. These rearrangements create fusion proteins in which the kinase domain of ROS1 becomes constitutively active and drives cellular proliferation. Targeting ROS1 fusion proteins with the small-molecule inhibitor crizotinib is showing promise as an effective therapy in patients with NSCLC whose tumors are positive for these genetic abnormalities. This review discusses the recent preclinical and clinical findings on ROS1 gene fusions in cancer. ©2013 AACR.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                24 April 2018
                : 12
                : 967-979
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Orthopedics Department, Shandong Provincial Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]School of Pharmacy, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fei Li; Ping Li, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, No 24 Tongjia Lane, Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 25 8327 1382, Email lifeicpu@ 123456163.com ; liping2004@ 123456126.com
                Article
                dddt-12-967
                10.2147/DDDT.S161904
                5923250
                © 2018 Xu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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