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      Ubiquitous formation of type-II bulk Dirac cones and topological surface states from a single orbital manifold in transition-metal dichalcogenides

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          Abstract

          Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are renowned for their rich and varied properties. They range from metals and superconductors to strongly spin-orbit-coupled semiconductors and charge-density-wave systems, with their single-layer variants one of the most prominent current examples of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Their varied ground states largely depend on the transition metal d-electron-derived electronic states, on which the vast majority of attention has been concentrated to date. Here, we focus on the chalcogen-derived states. From density-functional theory calculations together with spin- and angle- resolved photoemission, we find that these generically host type-II three-dimensional bulk Dirac fermions as well as ladders of topological surface states and surface resonances. We demonstrate how these naturally arise within a single p-orbital manifold as a general consequence of a trigonal crystal field, and as such can be expected across a large number of compounds. Already, we demonstrate their existence in six separate TMDs, opening routes to tune, and ultimately exploit, their topological physics.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

          The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
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            Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface

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              The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets.

              Ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. In contrast to the graphene sheet, they are chemically versatile. Mono- or few-layered TMDs - obtained either through exfoliation of bulk materials or bottom-up syntheses - are direct-gap semiconductors whose bandgap energy, as well as carrier type (n- or p-type), varies between compounds depending on their composition, structure and dimensionality. In this Review, we describe how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications. They have been investigated as chemically active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and hydrosulfurization, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics. Their morphologies and properties are also useful for energy storage applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2017-02-27
                Article
                1702.08177

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                9 pages, 3 figures
                cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.supr-con

                Condensed matter

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