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      Clinical variables impacting on the estimation of utilities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Health utilities are widely used in health economics as a measurement of an individual’s preference and show the value placed on different health states over a specific period. Thus, health utilities are used as a measure of the benefits of health interventions in terms of quality-adjusted life years. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical variables significantly associated with health utilities for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

          Patients and methods

          This was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometrically confirmed COPD. Utility values were derived from the preference-based generic questionnaire EQ-5D-3L applying weighted Spanish societal preferences. Demographic and clinical variables associated with utilities were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression models.


          Three hundred and forty-six patients were included, of whom 85.5% were male. The mean age was 67.9 (standard deviation [SD] =9.7) years and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 46.2% (SD =15.5%); 80.3% were former smokers, and the mean smoking history was 54.2 (SD =33.2) pack-years. Median utilities (interquartile range) were 0.81 (0.26) with a mean value of 0.73 (SD =0.29); 22% of patients had a utility value of 1 (ceiling effect) and 3.2% had a utility value lower than 0. The factors associated with utilities in the multivariate analysis were sex (beta =-0.084, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.154; -0.013 for females), number of exacerbations the previous year (−0.027, 95% CI: −0.044; -0.010), and modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC) score (−0.123 [95% CI: −0.185; −0.061], −0.231 [95% CI: −0.301; −0.161], and −0.559 [95% CI: −0.660; −0.458] for mMRC scores 2, 3, and 4 versus 1), all P<0.05.


          Multivariate analysis showed that female sex, frequent exacerbations, and an increased level of dyspnea were the main factors associated with reduced utility values in patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Computational Many-Particle Physics

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            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

            Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow obstruction that is only partly reversible, inflammation in the airways, and systemic effects or comorbities. The main cause is smoking tobacco, but other factors have been identified. Several pathobiological processes interact on a complex background of genetic determinants, lung growth, and environmental stimuli. The disease is further aggravated by exacerbations, particularly in patients with severe disease, up to 78% of which are due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or both. Comorbidities include ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, and lung cancer. Bronchodilators constitute the mainstay of treatment: β2 agonists and long-acting anticholinergic agents are frequently used (the former often with inhaled corticosteroids). Besides improving symptoms, these treatments are also thought to lead to some degree of disease modification. Future research should be directed towards the development of agents that notably affect the course of disease.
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              Prevalence of COPD in Spain: impact of undiagnosed COPD on quality of life and daily life activities.

              This study aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Spain and identify the level of undiagnosed disease and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and activities of daily living (ADL). A population-based sample of 4274 adults aged 40-80 years was surveyed. They were invited to answer a questionnaire and undergo prebrochodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity) ratio of <0.70. For 3802 participants with good-quality postbronchodilator spirometry, the overall prevalence of COPD was 10.2% (95% CI 9.2% to 11.1%) and was higher in men (15.1%) than in women (5.6%). The prevalence of COPD stage II or higher was 4.4% (95%CI; 3.8%-5.1%). The prevalence of COPD increased with age and with cigarette smoking and was higher in those with a low educational level. A previous diagnosis of COPD was reported by only 27% of those with COPD. Diagnosed patients had more severe disease, higher cumulative tobacco consumption and more severely impaired HRQL compared with undiagnosed subjects. However, even patients with undiagnosed COPD stage I+ already showed impairment in HRQL and in some aspects of ADL compared with participants without COPD. The prevalence of COPD in individuals between 40 and 80 years of age in Spain is 10.2% and increases with age, tobacco consumption and lower educational levels. The rate of diagnosised COPD is very high and undiagnosed individuals with COPD already have a significant impairment in HRQL and ADL.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                16 February 2015
                : 10
                : 367-377
                [1 ]Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain
                [3 ]Market Access Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
                [5 ]Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario de la Plana, Vila-real, Castellón, Spain
                [6 ]Health Economics and Outcome Strategies Department, Oblikue Consulting, Barcelona, Spain
                [7 ]Statistics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [8 ]Unidad Médico Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marc Miravitlles, Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Pg Vall d’Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain, Tel +34 93 274 61 57, Fax +34 93 274 60 83, Email mmiravitlles@
                © 2015 Miravitlles et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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