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      Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Aggravates Kidney Injury via Activation of p38/MAPK Signaling and Upregulation of HuR


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          Background: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is an intestinal metabolic toxin, which is produced by gut flora via metabolizing high-choline foods. TMAO is known to increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism of TMAO aggravating kidney injury. Method: We used the five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)-induced CKD rats to investigate whether TMAO could aggravate kidney damage and its possible mechanisms. Six weeks after the operation, the two groups of 5/6 Nx rats were subjected to intraperitoneal injection with 2.5% glucose peritoneal dialysis fluid (2.5% PDF) and 2.5% PDF plus TMAO 20 mg/kg/day. Results: In this study, we provided evidence showing TMAO significantly aggravated renal failure as well as inflammatory cell infiltration and in five-sixths nephrectomy-induced CKD rats. We found that TMAO could upregulate inflammatory factors including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-18 by activating p38 phosphorylation and upregulation of human antigen R. TMAO could aggravate oxidative stress by upregulating NOX4 and downregulating SOD. The result also confirmed that TMAO promoted NLRP3 inflammasome formation as well as cleaved caspase-1 and IL-1β activation in the kidney tissue. Conclusions: Taken together, the present study validates TMAO as a pro-inflammatory factor that causes renal inflammatory injury and renal function impairment. Inhibition of TMAO synthesis or promoting its clearance may be a potential therapeutic approach of CKD in the future.

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          Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

          Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk.
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            Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey.

            The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is high in developing countries. However, no national survey of chronic kidney disease has been done incorporating both estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in a developing country with the economic diversity of China. We aimed to measure the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China with such a survey. We did a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of Chinese adults. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) or the presence of albuminuria. Participants completed a lifestyle and medical history questionnaire and had their blood pressure measured, and blood and urine samples taken. Serum creatinine was measured and used to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Urinary albumin and creatinine were tested to assess albuminuria. The crude and adjusted prevalence of indicators of kidney damage were calculated and factors associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease analysed by logistic regression. 50,550 people were invited to participate, of whom 47,204 agreed. The adjusted prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) was 1·7% (95% CI 1·5-1·9) and of albuminuria was 9·4% (8·9-10·0). The overall prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 10·8% (10·2-11·3); therefore the number of patients with chronic kidney disease in China is estimated to be about 119·5 million (112·9-125·0 million). In rural areas, economic development was independently associated with the presence of albuminuria. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was high in north (16·9% [15·1-18·7]) and southwest (18·3% [16·4-20·4]) regions compared with other regions. Other factors independently associated with kidney damage were age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, hyperuricaemia, area of residence, and economic status. Chronic kidney disease has become an important public health problem in China. Special attention should be paid to residents in economically improving rural areas and specific geographical regions in China. The Ministry of Science and Technology (China); the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai; the National Natural Science Foundation of China; the Department of Health, Jiangsu Province; the Sichuan Science and Technology Department; the Ministry of Education (China); the International Society of Nephrology Research Committee; and the China Health and Medical Development Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway contributes to both development of renal insufficiency and mortality risk in chronic kidney disease.

              Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbial-dependent metabolite of dietary choline, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), and l-carnitine, is elevated in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and associated with coronary artery disease pathogenesis.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                January 2022
                17 November 2021
                : 47
                : 1
                : 61-71
                State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research (Ministry of Education), Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
                Author information
                519603 Kidney Blood Press Res 2022;47:61–71
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 03 June 2021
                : 11 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Pages: 11
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Chronic kidney disease,Human antigen R,p38/MAPK pathway,Inflammatory injury,Trimethylamine-N-oxide


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