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      Effect of Incorporating Hydroxyapatite and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on the Compressive Strength of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

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          Abstract

          Statement of the Problem:

          Many efforts have been made to improve the properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), including the incorporation of nanoparticles.

          Purpose:

          The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation of zinc oxide and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the compressive strength of white MTA (WMTA).

          Materials and Method:

          In this in vitro study, the following materials were evaluated: MTA, MTA+5% zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, MTA+10% zinc oxide nanoparticles, MTA+5% hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, MTA+10% zinc oxide nanoparticles. The compressive strength of the groups under investigation was measured on days 4 and 21 after mixing the MTA using a universal testing machine. Two-way ANOVA test was used to compare the groups and determine the significance of the effect of time and material on the compressive strength ( p<0.05).

          Results:

          The highest and lowest compressive strength values were respectively measured for the second group, MTA/21 days, and the fourth group, MTA+Nano ZnO/4 days. Two-way ANOVA indicated that incorporation of zinc oxide and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles into MTA did not have a significant effect on compressive strength ( p= 0.05). Compressive strength in all the groups increased over time from day 4 to day 21. However, this increase was not statistically significant ( p= 0.06) except for the MTA group, which exhibited significant increase in compressive strength over time from day 4 to day 21 ( p=0.007).

          Conclusion:

          Incorporation of HA and ZnO nanoparticles into MTA had no detrimental effects on its strength and these nanoparticles can be used to improve the other properties of MTA.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Mineral trioxide aggregate: a comprehensive literature review--Part III: Clinical applications, drawbacks, and mechanism of action.

          Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been recommended for various uses in endodontics. Two previous publications provided a comprehensive list of articles from November 1993-September 2009 regarding the chemical and physical properties, sealing ability, antibacterial activity, leakage, and biocompatibility of MTA. The purpose of Part III of this literature review is to present a comprehensive list of articles regarding animal studies, clinical applications, drawbacks, and mechanism of action of MTA. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand-searching methods for the clinical applications of MTA in experimental animals and humans as well as its drawbacks and mechanism of action from November 1993-September 2009. MTA is a promising material for root-end filling, perforation repair, vital pulp therapy, and apical barrier formation for teeth with necrotic pulps and open apexes. Despite the presence of numerous case reports and case series regarding these applications, there are few designed research studies regarding clinical applications of this material. MTA has some known drawbacks such as a long setting time, high cost, and potential of discoloration. Hydroxyapatite crystals form over MTA when it comes in contact with tissue synthetic fluid. This can act as a nidus for the formation of calcified structures after the use of this material in endodontic treatments. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. More clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy compared with other materials. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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            Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

            The resin-based dental composites commonly used in restorations result in more plaque accumulation than other materials. Bacterial biofilm growth contributes to secondary caries and failure of resin-based dental composites. Methods to inhibit biofilm growth on dental composites have been sought for several decades. It is demonstrated here that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) blended at 10% (w/w) fraction into dental composites display antimicrobial activity and reduce growth of bacterial biofilms by roughly 80% for a single-species model dental biofilm. Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 grown both planktonically and as biofilms on composites. Direct contact inhibition was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy while biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. An 80% reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart, indicating a statistically significant suppression of biofilm growth. Although, 20% of the bacterial population survived and could form a biofilm layer again, 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites maintained at least some inhibitory activity even after the third generation of biofilm growth. Microscopy demonstrated continuous biofilm formation for unmodified composites after 1-day growth, but only sparsely distributed biofilms formed on 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs suspended in S. sobrinus planktonic culture was 50 microg mL(-1). ZnO-NP-containing composites (10%) qualitatively showed less biofilm after 1-day-anaerobic growth of a three-species initial colonizer biofilm after being compared with unmodified composites, but did not significantly reduce growth after 3 days.
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              Mineral trioxide aggregate: a comprehensive literature review--Part I: chemical, physical, and antibacterial properties.

              An ideal orthograde or retrograde filling material should seal the pathways of communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues. It should also be nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, nongenotoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids, and dimensionally stable. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed and recommended initially because existing root-end filling materials did not have these "ideal" characteristics. MTA has also been recommended for pulp capping, pulpotomy, apical barrier formation in teeth with open apexes, repair of root perforations, and root canal filling. Since MTA's introduction in 1993, numerous studies have been published regarding various aspects of this material. The aim of Part I of this literature review is to present investigations regarding the chemical, physical, and antibacterial properties of MTA. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand-searching methods for the chemical and physical properties and antibacterial activity of MTA from November 1993-September 2009. There are many published reports regarding the chemical, physical, and antibacterial properties of MTA. Our search showed that MTA is composed of calcium, silica, and bismuth. It has a long setting time, high pH, and low compressive strength. It possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties, depending on its powder-to-liquid ratio. MTA is a bioactive material that influences its surrounding environment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Dent (Shiraz)
                J Dent (Shiraz)
                Journal of Dentistry
                Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Iran )
                2345-6485
                2345-6418
                December 2020
                : 21
                : 4
                : 300-306
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Dept. of Endodontics, Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Dental School, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [2 ] Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Dept. of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [3 ] Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [4 ] Dept. of Endodontics, Dental School, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
                [5 ] Dept. of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran
                [6 ] Private Practice, Tabriz, Iran
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ghodrati M, Dept. of Endodontics, Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Dental School, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Tel: +98-9144940367, Fax: +98-4133346977, Email: mostafa.ghodrati@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                JDS-21-4
                10.30476/DENTJODS.2020.82963.1034
                7737922
                Copyright: © Journal of Dentistry

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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