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      Silent evolution


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          Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of several kinds of beetles have shown that their evolution included a silent stage in which no morphological changes took place. We thus propose a new category of evolutionary process called “silent evolution”.

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          Formation of the Japanese Carabina fauna inferred from a phylogenetic tree of mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences (Coleoptera, carabidae).

          Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial ND5 gene comparisons and the geohistory of the Japanese Islands suggest that each Japanese species belonging to the subtribe Carabina has its own history for the establishment of its present habitat in the Japanese Islands. It can be roughly classified into two categories: (1) species which were derived from the ancestry that inhabited ancient Japan at the time of its split from the Eurasian Continent [ca. 15 million years ago (MYA)], followed by diversification within the Japanese Islands; and (2) species which invaded Hokkaido from the Eurasian Continent through land-bridges from Sakhalin and/or the Kuriles or from western Japan from the Korean Peninsula during the glacial era (<2 MYA).
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            Origin and diversification of hindwingless Damaster ground beetles within the Japanese islands as deduced from mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

            Genealogical trees have been constructed using mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences of 78 Damaster (s. str.) specimens from all over the Japanese Islands. Eight lineages (called races in this paper) have been recognized. The races are tightly linked to geography with sharp distribution boundaries between them. The races and their distribution ranges do not coincide with those of classical morphology. Based on the observed distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and the geohistorical data, we propose a diversification scenario of Damaster.
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              Evolutionary discontinuity of the Carabine ground beetles.

              The Carabine ground beetles are mostly hind wing-less and cannot fly, so that there is more chance of diversification by geographic isolation compared with winged insects. The relationships between morphological diversification and phylogeny of the ground beetles of the world have been inferred mainly by comparisons of mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences. Based on dating by a mitochondrial DNA "clock," it has been deduced that an explosive radiation of the major carabine groups took place 50-40 MYA. This was followed by occasional radiations on various scales, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological changes. There are also a good number of examples showing that the fundamental morphology has remained unchanged for a long time among geographically isolated populations within the same species. Thus, carabid evolution would have proceeded discontinuously, with phases of rapid morphological change alternating with silent phases.

                Author and article information

                Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci
                Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci
                Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
                The Japan Academy (Tokyo, Japan )
                11 November 2016
                : 92
                : 9
                : 455-461
                [*1 ]1003, 2-4-7, Ushita-Asahi, Higashi-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.
                [*2 ]JT Biohistory Research Hall, Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.
                [*3 ]Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.
                [*4 ]1112-16, Kashiwadani, Ebina-Shi, Kanagawa, Japan.
                [*5 ]A321, 4-1-15, Shibatsuji-cho, Nara 630-8114, Japan.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence should be addressed: S. Osawa, 1003, 2-4-7, Ushita-Asahi, Higashi-ku, Hiroshima 732-0067, Japan (e-mail: osawasyozo@ 123456nifty.com ), Z.-H. Su, JT Biohistory Research Hall, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1125, Japan (e-mail: su.zhihui@ 123456brh.co.jp ).

                (Communicated by Tsuneyoshi KUROIWA, M.J.A.)

                © 2016 The Japan Academy

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 1 June 2016
                : 7 September 2016
                Original Article

                Life sciences
                burying beetles,evolutionary process,ground beetles,phylogenetic trees
                Life sciences
                burying beetles, evolutionary process, ground beetles, phylogenetic trees


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