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      Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation

      review-article

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      Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

      Salinity, Salt-tolerant, PGPR, Microorganisms

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          Abstract

          Salinity is one of the most brutal environmental factors limiting the productivity of crop plants because most of the crop plants are sensitive to salinity caused by high concentrations of salts in the soil, and the area of land affected by it is increasing day by day. For all important crops, average yields are only a fraction – somewhere between 20% and 50% of record yields; these losses are mostly due to drought and high soil salinity, environmental conditions which will worsen in many regions because of global climate change. A wide range of adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with such impacts. Efficient resource management and crop/livestock improvement for evolving better breeds can help to overcome salinity stress. However, such strategies being long drawn and cost intensive, there is a need to develop simple and low cost biological methods for salinity stress management, which can be used on short term basis. Microorganisms could play a significant role in this respect, if we exploit their unique properties such as tolerance to saline conditions, genetic diversity, synthesis of compatible solutes, production of plant growth promoting hormones, bio-control potential, and their interaction with crop plants.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance.

          Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress are serious threats to agriculture and the natural status of the environment. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for drought and salinity stress tolerance in crop plants (for food supply) and in forest trees (a central component of the global ecosystem) should be given high research priority in plant biotechnology programs. Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress-related genes. These genes are involved in the whole sequence of stress responses, such as signaling, transcriptional control, protection of membranes and proteins, and free-radical and toxic-compound scavenging. Recently, research into the molecular mechanisms of stress responses has started to bear fruit and, in parallel, genetic modification of stress tolerance has also shown promising results that may ultimately apply to agriculturally and ecologically important plants. The present review summarizes the recent advances in elucidating stress-response mechanisms and their biotechnological applications. Emphasis is placed on transgenic plants that have been engineered based on different stress-response mechanisms. The review examines the following aspects: regulatory controls, metabolite engineering, ion transport, antioxidants and detoxification, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and heat-shock proteins.
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            Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together.

             James R Munns (2005)
            Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots, and regulate leaf development and the onset of senescence. This review lists some candidate genes for salinity tolerance, and draws together hypotheses about the functions of these genes and the specific tissues in which they might operate. Little has been revealed by gene expression studies so far, perhaps because the studies are not tissue-specific, and because the treatments are often traumatic and unnatural. Suggestions are made to increase the value of molecular studies in identifying genes that are important for salinity tolerance.
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              Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth.

              Bacterial endophytes live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. Studies of the interaction of endophytes with their host plants and their function within their hosts are important to address the ecological relevance of endophytes. The modulation of ethylene levels in plants by bacterially produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase is a key trait that enables interference with the physiology of the host plant. Endophytes with this capacity might profit from association with the plant, because colonization is enhanced. In turn, host plants benefit by stress reduction and increased root growth. This mechanism leads to the concept of 'competent' endophytes, defined as endophytes that are equipped with genes important for maintenance of plant-endophyte associations. The ecological role of these endophytes and their relevance for plant growth are discussed here.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
                1319-562X
                2213-7106
                9 December 2014
                9 December 2014
                March 2015
                : 22
                : 2
                : 123-131
                Affiliations
                Department of Environmental Microbiology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226025, India
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. pooja.nbaim@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S1319-562X(14)00171-5
                10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.12.001
                4336437
                25737642
                © 2014 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

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                Review

                salinity, salt-tolerant, pgpr, microorganisms

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