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      SOAR and the polybasic STIM1 domains gate and regulate the Orai channels

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          Abstract

          Store-operated Ca 2+ influx is mediated by store002Doperated Ca 2+ channels (SOCs) and is a central component of receptor-evoked Ca 2+ signals 1. The Orai channels mediate SOCs 24 and STIM1 is the ER-resident Ca 2+ sensor that gates the channels 5, 6. How STIM1 gates and regulates the Orai channels is unknown. Here, we report the molecular basis for gating of Orais by STIM1. All Orai channels are fully activated by the conserved STIM1(344–442), which we termed SOAR (the STIM1 Orai Activating Region). SOAR acts in combination with STIM1(450–485) to regulate the strength of interaction with Orai1. Orai1 activated by SOAR recapitulates all the entire kinetic properties of Orai1 activated by STIM1. Mutations of STIM1 within SOAR prevent activation of Orai1 without preventing co-clustering of STIM1 and Orai1 in response to Ca 2+ store depletion, indicating that STIM1-Orai1 co-clustering is not sufficient for Orai1 activation. An intact C-terminus α-helicial region of Orai is required for activation by SOAR. Deleting most of Orai1 N terminus impaired Orai1 activation by STIM1, but (Δ1–73)Orai1 interacts with and is fully activated by SOAR. Accordingly, the characteristic inward rectification of Orai is mediated by an interaction between the polybasic STIM1(672–685) and a proline-rich region in the N terminus of Orai1. Hence, the essential properties of Orai1 function can be rationalized by interactions with discrete regions of STIM1.

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          Most cited references 28

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          STIM is a Ca2+ sensor essential for Ca2+-store-depletion-triggered Ca2+ influx.

          Ca(2+) signaling in nonexcitable cells is typically initiated by receptor-triggered production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. An elusive signaling process senses the Ca(2+) store depletion and triggers the opening of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels. The resulting sustained Ca(2+) signals are required for many physiological responses, such as T cell activation and differentiation. Here, we monitored receptor-triggered Ca(2+) signals in cells transfected with siRNAs against 2,304 human signaling proteins, and we identified two proteins required for Ca(2+)-store-depletion-mediated Ca(2+) influx, STIM1 and STIM2. These proteins have a single transmembrane region with a putative Ca(2+) binding domain in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Ca(2+) store depletion led to a rapid translocation of STIM1 into puncta that accumulated near the plasma membrane. Introducing a point mutation in the STIM1 Ca(2+) binding domain resulted in prelocalization of the protein in puncta, and this mutant failed to respond to store depletion. Our study suggests that STIM proteins function as Ca(2+) store sensors in the signaling pathway connecting Ca(2+) store depletion to Ca(2+) influx.
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            A mutation in Orai1 causes immune deficiency by abrogating CRAC channel function.

            Antigen stimulation of immune cells triggers Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, promoting the immune response to pathogens by activating the transcription factor NFAT. We have previously shown that cells from patients with one form of hereditary severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) syndrome are defective in store-operated Ca2+ entry and CRAC channel function. Here we identify the genetic defect in these patients, using a combination of two unbiased genome-wide approaches: a modified linkage analysis with single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and a Drosophila RNA interference screen designed to identify regulators of store-operated Ca2+ entry and NFAT nuclear import. Both approaches converged on a novel protein that we call Orai1, which contains four putative transmembrane segments. The SCID patients are homozygous for a single missense mutation in ORAI1, and expression of wild-type Orai1 in SCID T cells restores store-operated Ca2+ influx and the CRAC current (I(CRAC)). We propose that Orai1 is an essential component or regulator of the CRAC channel complex.
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              Store-operated calcium channels.

              In electrically nonexcitable cells, Ca(2+) influx is essential for regulating a host of kinetically distinct processes involving exocytosis, enzyme control, gene regulation, cell growth and proliferation, and apoptosis. The major Ca(2+) entry pathway in these cells is the store-operated one, in which the emptying of intracellular Ca(2+) stores activates Ca(2+) influx (store-operated Ca(2+) entry, or capacitative Ca(2+) entry). Several biophysically distinct store-operated currents have been reported, but the best characterized is the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) current, I(CRAC). Although it was initially considered to function only in nonexcitable cells, growing evidence now points towards a central role for I(CRAC)-like currents in excitable cells too. In spite of intense research, the signal that relays the store Ca(2+) content to CRAC channels in the plasma membrane, as well as the molecular identity of the Ca(2+) sensor within the stores, remains elusive. Resolution of these issues would be greatly helped by the identification of the CRAC channel gene. In some systems, evidence suggests that store-operated channels might be related to TRP homologs, although no consensus has yet been reached. Better understood are mechanisms that inactivate store-operated entry and hence control the overall duration of Ca(2+) entry. Recent work has revealed a central role for mitochondria in the regulation of I(CRAC), and this is particularly prominent under physiological conditions. I(CRAC) therefore represents a dynamic interplay between endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and plasma membrane. In this review, we describe the key electrophysiological features of I(CRAC) and other store-operated Ca(2+) currents and how they are regulated, and we consider recent advances that have shed insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in this ubiquitous and vital Ca(2+) entry pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                100890575
                21417
                Nat Cell Biol
                Nature cell biology
                1465-7392
                1476-4679
                19 March 2009
                1 February 2009
                March 2009
                1 September 2009
                : 11
                : 3
                : 337-343
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
                [2 ]Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
                Author notes
                [3]

                Equal contributors

                Author Contributions:

                JPY, WZ, MRD and YJC performed the experiments, and all authors participated in the design of the experiments and in writing the manuscript.

                nihpa103214
                10.1038/ncb1842
                2663385
                19182790
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases : NIDDK
                Funded by: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research : NIDCR
                Award ID: R01 DK038938-23 ||DK
                Funded by: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases : NIDDK
                Funded by: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research : NIDCR
                Award ID: R01 DE013902-08 ||DE
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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