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      Nutritional Status of Patients with Tuberculosis and Associated Factors in the Health Centre Region of Burkina Faso

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          Abstract

          Extreme hunger and poverty remain a significant barrier to maintaining a normal and healthy life, and increase the burden of tuberculosis (TB) in sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with undernutrition among adult patients with TB in Burkina Faso. In the Health Centre Region of Burkina Faso, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of patients aged 15 years and older with TB ( n = 302), from March to April 2019. Undernutrition was defined as a body mass index of <18.5 kg/m 2. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of undernutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition was 35.8%, in which severe, moderate, and mild thinness were 7.7%, 8.9%, and 19.5%, respectively. Low food frequency per day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.28, confidence interval [CI]: 1.42–7.55, p = 0.005), human immunodeficiency virus infection (aOR = 6.18, CI: 2.26–16.88, p < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (aOR = 17.52, 95% CI: 1.88–162.97, p = 0.012) and young age (45–54 years vs. 65 years and older, aOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.11–7.70, p = 0.029) were associated with increased odds of undernutrition. We concluded that the assessment of comorbidity and nutritional status should be part of the treatment for adult TB patients.

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          Prevalence and associated factors of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus comorbidity: A systematic review

          Introduction The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels. Methods Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Cochrane library, Web of science and Scopus Elsevier databases were searched to identify eligible articles for the systematic review. Data were extracted using standardized excel form and pilot tested. Median with interquartile range (IQR) was used to estimate prevalence of TBDM comorbidity. Associated/risk factors that were identified from individual studies were thematically analyzed and described. Results The prevalence of DM among TB patients ranged from 1.9% to 45%. The overall median global prevalence was 16% (IQR 9.0%-25.3%) Similarly, the prevalence of TB among DM patients ranged from 0.38% to 14% and the overall median global prevalence was 4.1% (IQR 1.8%-6.2%). The highest prevalence of DM among TB patients is observed in the studied countries of Asia, North America and Oceania. On the contrary, the prevalence of TB among DM patients is low globally, but relatively higher in the studied countries of Asia and the African continents. Sex, older age, urban residence, tobacco smoking, sedentary lifestyle, poor glycemic control, having family history of DM and TB illness were among the variables identified as associated/risk factors for TBDM comorbidity. Conclusion This systematic review revealed that there is a high burden of DM among TB patients at global level. On the contrary, the global prevalence of TB among DM patients is low. Assessing the magnitude and risk/associated factors of TBDM comorbidity at country/local level is crucial before making decisions to undertake TBDM integrated services.
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            Nutritional Status of Adult Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Rural Central India and Its Association with Mortality

            Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m2and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m2and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMI<17.0 kg/m2). Fifty two percent of the patients (57% of men and 48% of women) had stunting indicating chronic under-nutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population.
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              The effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the presentation and treatment response of pulmonary tuberculosis.

              Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), and with the increasing prevalence of type 2 DM in less developed regions, many patients with TB will have concomitant DM. Presently, little is known about the effect of DM on the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of TB. In an urban setting in Indonesia, 737 patients with pulmonary TB were screened for DM and were followed up prospectively during TB treatment. Clinical characteristics and outcome were compared between patients with TB who had DM and patients with TB who did not have DM. DM was diagnosed in 14.8% of patients with TB and was associated with older age and a greater body weight. On presentation, diabetic patients with TB had more symptoms but had no evidence of more-severe TB. After 2 months, results of sputum microscopic examination was more often positive in diabetic patients (18.1% vs. 10.0%). After 6 months, 22.2% of cultured sputum specimens from diabetic patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio, 7.65; P=.004). DM seems to have a negative effect on the outcome of TB treatment. The underlying mechanisms for the different response to treatment in diabetic patients with TB must be explored. Screening for DM and subsequent glycemic control may improve the outcome of TB treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                21 August 2020
                September 2020
                : 12
                : 9
                : 2540
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, North District, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan; bmusuenge@ 123456yahoo.fr
                [2 ]Public Health Department, University of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou 03 BP 7021, Burkina Faso; podaghis@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: peichun@ 123456mail.cmu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-4-2205-3366 (ext. 6102)
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7948-3054
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8713-8816
                Article
                nutrients-12-02540
                10.3390/nu12092540
                7551284
                32825756
                cbf7419b-1c39-42be-b967-18efdab57170
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 06 August 2020
                : 19 August 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                tuberculosis,undernutrition,adults,associated factors,burkina faso
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                tuberculosis, undernutrition, adults, associated factors, burkina faso

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