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      Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

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          To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease.

          Literature search

          Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles.


          All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers.


          All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died).


          Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity.

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          Most cited references 70

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          The global distribution of yellow fever and dengue.

          Yellow fever has been subjected to partial control for decades, but there are signs that case numbers are now increasing globally, with the risk of local epidemic outbreaks. Dengue case numbers have also increased dramatically during the past 40 years and different serotypes have invaded new geographical areas. Despite the temporal changes in these closely related diseases, and their enormous public health impact, few attempts have been made to collect a comprehensive dataset of their spatial and temporal distributions. For this review, records of the occurrence of both diseases during the 20th century have been collected together and are used to define their climatic limits using remotely sensed satellite data within a discriminant analytical model framework. The resulting risk maps for these two diseases identify their different environmental requirements, and throw some light on their potential for co-occurrence in Africa and South East Asia.
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            Yellow fever vaccine.

            Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is one of the most lethal diseases of humankind. The etiologic agent is the prototype member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, a group of small, enveloped, positive-sense, single-strand RNA viruses. Approximately one in seven people who become infected develop a rapidly progressive illness, with hepatitis, renal failure, hemorrhage and cardiovascular shock, with a case fatality rate of 20-50%. Yellow fever occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, where it remains a continuing public health problem of varying magnitude, depending on the level of vaccination coverage in the human population and cyclical, ecologic and climatic factors that influence virus transmission.
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              The estimated mortality impact of vaccinations forecast to be administered during 2011-2020 in 73 countries supported by the GAVI Alliance.

              From August to December 2011, a multidisciplinary group with expertise in mathematical modeling was constituted by the GAVI Alliance and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to estimate the impact of vaccination in 73 countries supported by the GAVI Alliance. The number of deaths averted in persons projected to be vaccinated during 2011-2020 was estimated for ten antigens: hepatitis B, yellow fever, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, rotavirus, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, Japanese encephalitis, human papillomavirus, measles, and rubella. Impact was calculated as the difference in the number of deaths expected over the lifetime of vaccinated cohorts compared to the number of deaths expected in those cohorts with no vaccination. Numbers of persons vaccinated were based on 2011 GAVI Strategic Demand Forecasts with projected dates of vaccine introductions, vaccination coverage, and target population size in each country. By 2020, nearly all GAVI-supported countries with endemic disease are projected to have introduced hepatitis B, Hib, pneumococcal, rotavirus, rubella, yellow fever, N. meningitidis serogroup A, and Japanese encephalitis-containing vaccines; 55 (75 percent) countries are projected to have introduced human papillomavirus vaccine. Projected use of these vaccines during 2011-2020 is expected to avert an estimated 9.9 million deaths. Routine and supplementary immunization activities with measles vaccine are expected to avert an additional 13.4 million deaths. Estimated numbers of deaths averted per 1000 persons vaccinated were highest for first-dose measles (16.5), human papillomavirus (15.1), and hepatitis B (8.3) vaccination. Approximately 52 percent of the expected deaths averted will be in Africa, 27 percent in Southeast Asia, and 13 percent in the Eastern Mediterranean. Vaccination of persons during 2011-2020 in 73 GAVI-eligible countries is expected to have substantial public health impact, particularly in Africa and Southeast Asia, two regions with high mortality. The actual impact of vaccination in these countries may be higher than our estimates because several widely used antigens were not included in the analysis. The quality of our estimates is limited by lack of data on underlying disease burden and vaccine effectiveness against fatal disease outcomes in developing countries. We plan to update the estimates annually to reflect updated demand forecasts, to refine model assumptions based on results of new information, and to extend the analysis to include morbidity and economic benefits. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                12 October 2016
                : 10
                : 3345-3353
                Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Roger E Thomas, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary T2N 4N1, AB, Canada, Tel +1 403 210 9208, Fax +1 403 270 4329, Email rthomas@ 123456ucalgary.ca
                © 2016 Thomas. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



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