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      Respuesta a la terapia combinada vs monoterapia con betabloqueantes en profilaxis primaria de sangrado variceal en pacientes con cirrosis hepática

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          Abstract

          Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar los resultados del propanolol combinado o no con ligadura endoscópica (LE) en la profilaxis primaria del sangrado variceal en pacientes que acudieron al Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, durante los meses de Enero a Octubre 2009. La investigación fue de tipo correlacional, prospectiva, longitudinal. La población estuvo conformada por 40 pacientes entre 18 y 75 años de edad con Cirrosis Hepática y varices esofágicas de tamaño mediano-grande con o sin signos rojos, sin antecedentes de hemorragia digestiva superior. Se seleccionaron al azar 2 grupos, el primero estuvo representado por 20 pacientes, quienes fueron sometidos a LE combinado con Propanolol y el segundo por 20 pacientes tratados sólo con Propanolol. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un cuestionario basado en las variables, dimensiones e indicadores propuestos en la investigación. Se demostró que el propanolol como monoterapia es tan efectivo como combinado con LE en la profilaxis primaria del sangrado variceal.

          Translated abstract

          This research was aim to relate the results propranolol combined or not with endoscopic ligation (LE) in the primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in the Gastroenterology Service, Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, during the months of January to October 2009. A correlational, prospective, longitudinal type study. The population was 40 patients between 18 and 75 years old with liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices of large-medium size, with no history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. They were two randomly selected samples, the first is represented by 20 patients who underwent LE combined with propranolol and the second 20 patients treated with propranolol alone. For data collection a questionnaire was designed based on the variables, dimensions and indicators proposed in the research. We demonstrated that monotherapy with propranolol is as effective as combined with LE in the primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Upper digestive bleeding in cirrhosis. Post-therapeutic outcome and prognostic indicators.

          Several treatments have been proven to be effective for variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this multicenter, prospective, cohort study was to assess how these treatments are used in clinical practice and what are the posttherapeutic prognosis and prognostic indicators of upper digestive bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. A training set of 291 and a test set of 174 bleeding cirrhotic patients were included. Treatment was according to the preferences of each center and the follow-up period was 6 weeks. Predictive rules for 5-day failure (uncontrolled bleeding, rebleeding, or death) and 6-week mortality were developed by the logistic model in the training set and validated in the test set. Initial treatment controlled bleeding in 90% of patients, including vasoactive drugs in 27%, endoscopic therapy in 10%, combined (endoscopic and vasoactive) in 45%, balloon tamponade alone in 1%, and none in 17%. The 5-day failure rate was 13%, 6-week rebleeding was 17%, and mortality was 20%. Corresponding findings for variceal versus nonvariceal bleeding were 15% versus 7% (P =.034), 19% versus 10% (P =.019), and 20% versus 15% (P =.22). Active bleeding on endoscopy, hematocrit levels, aminotransferase levels, Child-Pugh class, and portal vein thrombosis were significant predictors of 5-day failure; alcohol-induced etiology, bilirubin, albumin, encephalopathy, and hepatocarcinoma were predictors of 6-week mortality. Prognostic reassessment including blood transfusions improved the predictive accuracy. All the developed prognostic models were superior to the Child-Pugh score. In conclusion, prognosis of digestive bleeding in cirrhosis has much improved over the past 2 decades. Initial treatment stops bleeding in 90% of patients. Accurate predictive rules are provided for early recognition of high-risk patients.
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            Prognostic value of early measurements of portal pressure in acute variceal bleeding.

            Variceal bleeding is the most important complication of portal hypertension. However, the relationship between the increase in portal pressure and the outcome of variceal bleeding has not been well defined. We measured the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) of 65 cirrhotic patients with acute variceal hemorrhage, early after admission (20.6 +/- 15.6 hours). Twenty-three patients had a poor evolution (failure to control bleeding or early variceal rebleeding), and 42 had an uneventful evolution. The only variable associated with outcome was the HVPG, which was higher in patients with a poor evolution (23.7 +/- 6.1 vs. 19.2 +/- 3.3 mm Hg; P /=20 mm Hg in 19 of 23 patients with poor evolution vs. 12 of 42 patients with uneventful evolution (P /=20 mm Hg was associated with a significantly longer intensive care unit stay (7 +/- 5 vs. 4 +/- 2 days; P < 0.02), longer hospital stay (19 +/- 10 vs. 14 +/- 6 days; P < 0.02), greater transfusion requirements (9.0 +/- 7.7 vs. 4.7 +/- 3.2 UU; P < 0.007), and a worse actuarial probability of survival (1-year mortality, 64% vs. 20%; P < 0.002). Early measurement of HVPG in cirrhotic patients during acute variceal bleeding provides useful prognostic information on the evolution of the bleeding episode and long-term survival.
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              Endoscopic treatment versus endoscopic plus pharmacologic treatment for acute variceal bleeding: a meta-analysis.

              Endoscopic therapy, involving either injection sclerosis or band ligation, is considered the intervention of first choice for acute variceal bleeding (AVB). Pharmacologic agents have also been shown to be highly effective in the control of the bleeding episode. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess whether vasoactive drugs may improve the efficacy of endoscopic therapy (injection sclerosis or band ligation) in the control of AVB and thus increase survival rates. Computer databases and scientific meeting abstracts from 1994 to 2001 were used to search for randomized trials that compared the combined use of endoscopic and drug therapy with endoscopic therapy alone in the control of AVB. Eight trials involving 939 patients fulfilled the selection criteria and the following evaluated by standard meta-analysis methods: initial hemostasis, 5-day hemostasis, 5-day mortality, and adverse events. Combined treatment improved initial control of bleeding (relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.23), and 5-day hemostasis (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.39), with numbers of patients needed to treat (NNT) of 8 and 5, respectively. The difference in favor of combined treatment remained significant when trials that used drugs other than octreotide or that included a low proportion of alcoholic patients (<40%) or high-risk cirrhotic patients (<35%) were excluded. Mortality was not significantly decreased by combined therapy (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.45-1.18). Severe adverse events were similar in both groups. In conclusion, in patients with AVB, pharmacologic agents improve the efficacy of endoscopic therapy to achieve initial control of bleeding and 5-day hemostasis, yet fail to affect mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                September 2011
                : 65
                : 3
                : 187-193
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Policlínica Amado Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032011000300006
                cc09a4c8-620a-42a4-a82c-64a11042b6a9
                Product
                Product Information: website

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