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      Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution

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          Abstract

          We present new global maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification at an unprecedented 1-km resolution for the present-day (1980–2016) and for projected future conditions (2071–2100) under climate change. The present-day map is derived from an ensemble of four high-resolution, topographically-corrected climatic maps. The future map is derived from an ensemble of 32 climate model projections (scenario RCP8.5), by superimposing the projected climate change anomaly on the baseline high-resolution climatic maps. For both time periods we calculate confidence levels from the ensemble spread, providing valuable indications of the reliability of the classifications. The new maps exhibit a higher classification accuracy and substantially more detail than previous maps, particularly in regions with sharp spatial or elevation gradients. We anticipate the new maps will be useful for numerous applications, including species and vegetation distribution modeling. The new maps including the associated confidence maps are freely available via www.gloh2o.org/koppen.

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          Most cited references21

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          An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design

          The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) will produce a state-of-the- art multimodel dataset designed to advance our knowledge of climate variability and climate change. Researchers worldwide are analyzing the model output and will produce results likely to underlie the forthcoming Fifth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Unprecedented in scale and attracting interest from all major climate modeling groups, CMIP5 includes “long term” simulations of twentieth-century climate and projections for the twenty-first century and beyond. Conventional atmosphere–ocean global climate models and Earth system models of intermediate complexity are for the first time being joined by more recently developed Earth system models under an experiment design that allows both types of models to be compared to observations on an equal footing. Besides the longterm experiments, CMIP5 calls for an entirely new suite of “near term” simulations focusing on recent decades and the future to year 2035. These “decadal predictions” are initialized based on observations and will be used to explore the predictability of climate and to assess the forecast system's predictive skill. The CMIP5 experiment design also allows for participation of stand-alone atmospheric models and includes a variety of idealized experiments that will improve understanding of the range of model responses found in the more complex and realistic simulations. An exceptionally comprehensive set of model output is being collected and made freely available to researchers through an integrated but distributed data archive. For researchers unfamiliar with climate models, the limitations of the models and experiment design are described.
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            RCP 8.5—A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions

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              Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Data
                Sci Data
                Scientific Data
                Nature Publishing Group
                2052-4463
                30 October 2018
                2018
                : 5
                : 180214
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Princeton University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Princeton, NJ, USA
                [2 ]Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL , CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
                [3 ]Department of Environmental Systems Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH , Zürich, Switzerland
                [4 ]CSIRO Land and Water , Canberra, ACT, Australia
                [5 ]Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science , Sydney, Australia
                Author notes
                [a ]H.E.B. (email: hylke.beck@ 123456gmail.com )
                []

                H.E.B. produced the new maps and took the lead in writing the manuscript; all coauthors provided critical feedback and contributed to the writing.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2553-9566
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3099-9604
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7298-0509
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7037-9675
                Article
                sdata2018214
                10.1038/sdata.2018.214
                6207062
                30375988
                cc155e31-cdd1-4d6e-9215-4a229c5465eb
                Copyright © 2018, The Author(s)

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ applies to the metadata files made available in this article.

                History
                : 04 June 2018
                : 21 August 2018
                Categories
                Data Descriptor

                ecology,climate sciences
                ecology, climate sciences

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