To elucidate the prevalence and clinical implications of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) in lupus nephritis (LN), we examined ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence and by ELISA against antilactoferrin (anti-LF) and antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) antibody. To discriminate perinuclear ANCA (pANCA) with antinuclear antibody (ANA), all the ANCA-positive sera were tested again after incubating patients’ sera with single-stranded (SS) and double-stranded (ds) DNA. These results were compared with clinicopathologic manifestations and clinical courses of LN. ANCA was positive in 19 (37.3%) of 51 LN patients. Among these LN patients, 3 had cytoplasmic ANCA (cANCA) and 16 had pANCA. ANCA was not found in 8 SLE patients without nephritis and 30 normal controls. The presence of ANCA, particularly pANCA, was associated with the presence of nephritis (18/51 cases vs. 0/8 cases, p < 0.05), especially with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis, WHO class IV (17/18 cases vs. 21/31 cases, p < 0.05) as well as the presence of anti-dsDNA antibody (17/19 cases vs. 18/30 cases, p < 0.05). Patients with ANCA frequently had deterioration of renal function (3/16 vs. 0/26 cases). Anti-LF antibody was positive in 13 patients. Among those, 12 patients had nephritis. Five patients with anti-LF antibody did not have ANCA, but 7 had pANCA, and 1 had cANCA. Patients with anti-LF antibody had lower initial creatinine levels than those without it [serum creatinine (mg/dl): 0.78 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.43 (0.5–5.0), p < 0.05]. Anti-MPO antibody was positive in only 1 patient, suggesting that MPO is a rare antigen for ANCA in LN.