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      The versatile β-barrel membrane protein

      Current Opinion in Structural Biology

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 46

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          Membrane protein folding and stability: physical principles.

          Stably folded membrane proteins reside in a free energy minimum determined by the interactions of the peptide chains with each other, the lipid bilayer hydrocarbon core, the bilayer interface, and with water. The prediction of three-dimensional structure from sequence requires a detailed understanding of these interactions. Progress toward this objective is summarized in this review by means of a thermodynamic framework for describing membrane protein folding and stability. The framework includes a coherent thermodynamic formalism for determining and describing the energetics of peptide-bilayer interactions and a review of the properties of the environment of membrane proteins--the bilayer milieu. Using a four-step thermodynamic cycle as a guide, advances in three main aspects of membrane protein folding energetics are discussed: protein binding and folding in bilayer interfaces, transmembrane helix insertion, and helix-helix interactions. The concepts of membrane protein stability that emerge provide insights to fundamental issues of protein folding.
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            Role of a highly conserved bacterial protein in outer membrane protein assembly.

            After transport across the cytoplasmic membrane, bacterial outer membrane proteins are assembled into the outer membrane. Meningococcal Omp85 is a highly conserved protein in Gram-negative bacteria, and its homolog Toc75 is a component of the chloroplast protein-import machinery. Omp85 appeared to be essential for viability, and unassembled forms of various outer membrane proteins accumulated upon Omp85 depletion. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed decreased surface exposure of outer membrane proteins, which was particularly apparent at the cell-division planes. Thus, Omp85 is likely to play a role in outer membrane protein assembly.
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              Proteomic analysis of the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

              Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria are key molecules that interface the cell with the environment. Traditional biochemical and genetic approaches have yielded a wealth of knowledge relating to the function of OMPs. Nonetheless, with the completion of the Escherichia coli genome sequencing project there is the opportunity to further expand our understanding of the organization, expression and function of the OMPs in this Gram-negative bacterium. In this report we describe a proteomic approach which provides a platform for parallel analysis of OMPs. We propose a rapid method for isolation of bacterial OMPs using carbonate incubation, purification and protein array by two-dimensional electrophoresis, followed by protein identification using mass spectrometry. Applying this method to examine E. coli K-12 cells grown in minimal media we identified 21 out of 26 (80%) of the predicted integral OMPs that are annotated in SWISS-PROT release 37 and predicted to separate within the range of pH 4-7 and molecular mass 10-80 kDa. Five outer membrane lipoproteins were also identified and only minor contamination by nonmembrane proteins was observed. Importantly, this research readily demonstrates that integral OMPs, commonly missing from 2D gel maps, are amenable to separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Two of the identified OMPs (YbiL, YeaF) were previously known only from their ORFs, and their identification confirms the cognate genes are transcribed and translated. Furthermore, we show that like the E. coli iron receptors FhuE and FhuA, the expression of YbiL is markedly increased by iron limitation, suggesting a putative role for this protein in iron transport. In an additional demonstration we show the value of parallel protein analysis to document changes in E. coli OMP expression as influenced by culture temperature.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Opinion in Structural Biology
                Current Opinion in Structural Biology
                Elsevier BV
                0959440X
                August 2003
                August 2003
                : 13
                : 4
                : 404-411
                Article
                10.1016/S0959-440X(03)00099-X
                cc266a04-b7f9-4847-b9af-16c7ed0deef1
                © 2003

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