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      A review of adult asthma and the effectiveness of education programs in reducing symptoms

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          Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs in children and adults. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommends asthma self-management education to be essential in providing patients with the skills necessary to control asthma and improve outcomes. A number of studies have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of these educational programs in children; however, such studies have not demonstrated efficacy in adult populations. This review explores the epidemiology of asthma, the different categories of asthma based on demographic differences, and environmental triggers of asthma. We also discuss common medical options that are available to treat asthma. We then describe the components of an asthma education program and the effectiveness in improving patient outcomes. The literature review was conducted using the National Library of Medicine Pub Med search engine. Comprehensive reviews were focused on the English literature involving human subjects in the last 5 years. Randomized controlled trials were selected for a citation on each subject when available. The Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3; Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma – Report 2007) was used as the primary reference source for standard of care treatment guidelines. Search terms included asthma, motivational interviewing, irritant-induced asthma, asthma education, home intervention, telemedicine, nitric oxide, asthma action plan, occupational asthma, IgE-mediated asthma, asthma guidelines, asthma prevalence, and asthma treatment.

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          Most cited references 47

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          The genetics of asthma and allergic disease: a 21st century perspective.

          Asthma and allergy are common conditions with complex etiologies involving both genetic and environmental contributions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses of GWAS have begun to shed light on both common and distinct pathways that contribute to asthma and allergic diseases. Associations with variation in genes encoding the epithelial cell-derived cytokines, interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and the IL1RL1 gene encoding the IL-33 receptor, ST2, highlight the central roles for innate immune response pathways that promote the activation and differentiation of T-helper 2 cells in the pathogenesis of both asthma and allergic diseases. In contrast, variation at the 17q21 asthma locus, encoding the ORMDL3 and GSDML genes, is specifically associated with risk for childhood onset asthma. These and other genetic findings are providing a list of well-validated asthma and allergy susceptibility genes that are expanding our understanding of the common and unique biological pathways that are dysregulated in these related conditions. Ongoing studies will continue to broaden our understanding of asthma and allergy and unravel the mechanisms for the development of these complex traits. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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              Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2012.

              This report presents detailed tables from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, education, current employment status, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates (frequencies and percentages) are presented for selected chronic conditions and mental health characteristics, functional limitations, health status, health behaviors, health care access and utilization, and human immunodeficiency virus testing. Percentages and percent distributions are presented in both age-adjusted and unadjusted versions.

                Author and article information

                Family Medicine and Community Health
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                June 2015
                July 2015
                : 3
                : 2
                : 54-61
                1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: William Brett Perkison, MD, Department of Family and Community, Medicine, 3701 Kirby, Drive, Suite 600, Houston, TX 77098, USA, Tel.: +713-798-7700, E-mail: perkison@ 123456bcm.edu
                Copyright © 2015 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
                Evidence-Based Review


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