In a recent study, in our laboratory, primary unconjugated bile acids, commonly found in humans, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), have been shown to improve stability of nanoencapsulated lipophilic drugs and improve their release profile after oral administration likely via electrokinetic stabilisation. Hence, this study aimed to examine the effects of CDCA on exerting similar effects on hydrophilic drugs.
Various CDCA-based formulations were produced for the orally administered hydrophilic drug, metformin. Analyses of these formulations included electrokinetic potentials, topography, drug and CDCA formulation contents, nano size distribution, heat-induced deformation and outer-core expansion indices, release profiles, shell-resistance ratio, and thermal and chemical indices. With the drug’s main target being pancreatic beta-cells, the formulations’ effects on cell viability, functions and inflammatory profiles were also investigated.