The quantitative imaging of individual impurity atoms in annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) requires a clear theoretical understanding of ADF-STEM lattice imaging, nearly ideal thin samples, and careful attention to image processing. We explore the theory using plane-wave multislice simulations that show the image intensity of substitutional impurities is depth-dependent due to probe channeling, but the intensity of interstitial impurities need not be. The images are only directly interpretable in thin samples. For this reason, we describe a wedge mechanical polishing technique to produce samples less than <50 A thick, with low surface roughness and no amorphous surface oxide. This allows us to image individual dopants as they exist within a bulk-like silicon environment. We also discuss the image analysis techniques used to extract maximum quantitative information from the images. Based on this information, we conclude that the primary nanocluster defect responsible for the electrical inactivity of Sb in Si at high concentration consists of only two atoms.