Increasing urinary net acid (titratable acid + NH<sub>4</sub> – HCO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub>) excretion is accompanied by an increased urinary Ca excretion because of reduced renal tubular reabsorption of filtered Ca. The relationships between urinary Ca excretion rates and urinary net acid excretion rates are reviewed for data: (1) among healthy adults eating constant diets when net acid excretion is increased by increasing dietary protein, administering NH<sub>4</sub>Cl, or withdrawal of dietary KHCO<sub>3</sub> or reduced by administering KHCO<sub>3</sub>; (2) among healthy adults eating constant diets providing varying amounts of protein and potassium, and (3) among healthy adults and Ca stone formers with and without idiopathic hypercalciuria eating ad libitum. The results show that urinary Ca excretion varies directly with net acid excretion by 0.035 mmol/mEq. The urinary net acid excretion increases by 0.10–0.15 mEq/mmol urinary urea, and urinary Ca increases by about 0.04 mmol/g dietary protein, while the urinary net acid excretion decreases as the ratio of urinary K/urea, a reflection of the dietary K relative to dietary protein, increases. The relationships between net acid excretion and both urinary urea and K/urea are similar among Ca stone formers without and with idiopathic hypercalciuria, but those with idiopathic hypercalciuria exhibit increased rates of urinary Ca excretion at all levels of net acid excretion.