Although carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have been used extensively in many aerospace structures such as Boeing 787 and Airbus 350, low-cost and high-rate production CFRP are highly demanded for next-generation single-aisle commercial aircraft since an increasing number of aircraft needs to be produced. There exist several ways to develop low-cost and high-rate production CFRP. One is to develop new low-cost and high-rate production autoclave CFRP prepregs. The mechanical properties must not be sacrificed with the low-cost manufacturing process. Alternatively, thermoplastic CFRP (CFRTP) and out-of-autoclave (OoA) CFRP are most promising material systems for such purposes as well. These CFRPs may be used as airframe secondary structures before applied to primary structures. However, quality assurance is a key issue to be solved before these materials are used in practical aircraft applications. In order to develop such low-cost and high-rate production CFRP for practical aerospace applications, there needs a lot of trials and errors to establish an optimum manufacturing conditions. We are attempting to propose an innovative approach including embedded optical fiber sensor based in-process monitoring and multi-scale computer simulation methodology for �smart manufacturing/processing science� to overcome conventional trial and error manufacturing process. We believe these approaches can establish strong bases to strengthen our aerospace industries and to realize the safe and sound society with low carbon emission.