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      Release of Interleukin-6 and Its Soluble Receptors by Activated Peripheral Blood Monocytes Is Elevated in Hypocholesterolemic Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: A reverse association between cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease mortality is observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients; this paradoxical relationship may be explained by the coexistence of inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a central regulator of inflammation; its action is augmented by the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and inhibited by the soluble gp130 (sgp130). In order to investigate the potential association of inflammation with cholesterol levels in the HD population, release of soluble IL-6 components by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured in two groups of HD patients with distinctly different lipid profile and in a control group. Methods: Twenty-two HD patients with low serum cholesterol (range 85–171 mg/dl), 23 HD patients with high cholesterol (189–342 mg/dl) and 21 normolipidemic non-renal failure subjects were enrolled in the study. IL-6, sIL-6R and sgp130 were measured by ELISA in the serum and in the supernatant collected from cell cultures of activated or resting PBMCs isolated from all three groups. Results: Serum IL-6 and sgp130 level was higher while sIL-6R was lower in both groups of HD patients compared to the control group. The ex-vivo release of the IL-6 and sgp130 by unstimulated PBMCs did not differ significantly between the three groups but that of the sIL-6R was higher in non-renal failure than in hypercholesterolemic HD subjects. Production of sIL-6R by stimulated PBMCs was higher in low-cholesterol HD patients (p < 0.001) and the same was valid for the sgp130 release (p = 0.034). Release of IL-6 by activated PBMCs was higher in the low-cholesterol compared to the high-cholesterol HD patients group (p = 0.011 for post hoc test). Major serum lipid fractions were inversely correlated to IL-6 and sIL-6R production from stimulated PBMCs in HD but not in non-renal failure subjects. Finally, release of the sgp130 by PBMCs was significantly reduced in 13 hypertriglyceridemic – and hypercholesterolemic – HD patients. Conclusion: Production of soluble components of a crucial pro-inflammatory and potentially atherogenic cytokine, namely the IL-6, by stimulated PBMCs appears to be inversely correlated with the serum cholesterol levels in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The soluble interleukin 6 receptor: mechanisms of production and implications in disease.

          Interleukin 6 (IL-6) performs a prominent role during disease and has been described as both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine. A key feature in the regulation of IL-6 responses has been the identification of a soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), which forms a ligand-receptor complex with IL-6 that is capable of stimulating a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation and activation of inflammatory processes. Elevated sIL-6R levels have been documented in numerous clinical conditions indicating that its production is coordinated as part of a disease response. Thus, sIL-6R has the potential to regulate both local and systemic IL-6-mediated events. This review will outline the central role of sIL-6R in the coordination of IL-6 responses. Details relating to the mechanisms of sIL-6R production will be provided, while the potential significance of sIL-6R during the development of clinical conditions will be emphasized. We want to convey, therefore, that when thinking about the inflammatory capability of IL-6, it is essential to consider not only the action of IL-6 itself, but also the effect sIL-6R may have on cellular processes.
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            Cellular cholesterol depletion triggers shedding of the human interleukin-6 receptor by ADAM10 and ADAM17 (TACE).

            Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates cells by binding to the membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and subsequent formation of a glycoprotein 130 homodimer. Cells that express glycoprotein 130, but not the IL-6R, can be activated by IL-6 and the soluble IL-6R which is generated by shedding from the cell surface or by alternative splicing. Here we show that cholesterol depletion of cells with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin increases IL-6R shedding independent of protein kinase C activation and thus differs from phorbol ester-induced shedding. Contrary to cholesterol depletion, cholesterol enrichment did not increase IL-6R shedding. Shedding of the IL-6R because of cholesterol depletion is highly dependent on the metalloproteinase ADAM17 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme), and the related ADAM10, which is identified here for the first time as an enzyme involved in constitutive and induced shedding of the human IL-6R. When combined with protein kinase C inhibition by staurosporine or rottlerin, breakdown of plasma membrane sphingomyelin or enrichment of the plasma membrane with ceramide also increased IL-6R shedding. The effect of cholesterol depletion was confirmed in human THP-1 and Hep3B cells and in primary human peripheral blood monocytes, which naturally express the IL-6R. For decades, high cholesterol levels have been considered harmful. This study indicates that low cholesterol levels may play a role in shedding of the membrane-bound IL-6R and thereby in the immunopathogenesis of human diseases.
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              Soluble gp130 is the natural inhibitor of soluble interleukin-6 receptor transsignaling responses

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                October 2005
                12 October 2005
                : 25
                : 5
                : 484-490
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, General Hospital of Athens, bDepartment of Medical Biopathology, Eginition Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens, and cRenal Unit, Dragini Clinic, Athens, Greece
                Article
                87921 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:484–490
                10.1159/000087921
                16127269
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 20, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/87921
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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